Understanding Investing: Beginners Guide, Types, Basics, Best Practice

Understanding Investing: Beginners Guide, Types, Basics, Best Practice

Investing: The act of investing money or capital in a venture in the hopes of gaining further income or profit is known as investing. Investing sets aside money for the future in the hopes of seeing it grow over time. However, investing can also result in losing money. In this article, let’s understand everything about Investing, its types and what are the best practices that one should follow to make through investing.

What is Investing?

Investing is the process of allocating assets, usually money, in the hopes of making a profit or producing an income. You can invest in ventures, such as utilising the money to establish a business, or assets, such as buying real estate with the intention of reselling it at a greater price later.

  • What Is Investing In Stocks?
  • What Is Investing Money?
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  • What Is Investing In Stock Market?
  • What Is Investing In Bonds?
  • What Is Investing In Bitcoin?
  • What Is Investing In Shares?
  • What Is Investing And How Does It Work?
  • What Is Investing In Cryptocurrency?
  • What Is Investing In Economics?
  • What Is Investing In Accounting?
  • What Is Investing In Forex?

What are Investments?

An investment is a financial asset or object purchased with the expectation of earning money or increasing in value in the future.

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Understanding Investing

The core principle of investing is the expectation of a significant statistical return in the form of income or price appreciation. The range of assets in which one can invest and generate a profit is extremely broad. One must note that Risk & Return are the two sides of the coin and play hand in hand when it comes to investing.

If one chooses the low-risk investment, then the returns might also be less, coming to high-risk investments will result in huge returns. However one must note that the investments returns will depend upon the type of asset they have invested in. For example, there are many stocks that will pay quarterly dividends but when it comes to bonds, they pay interest every quarter.

  • Your Complete Guide To Understand Investing
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  • Understanding Standard Deviation In Investing
  • Understanding ESP Investing
  • Understanding TSP Investing

Is Investing and Saving Same?

One must note that investing isn’t the same as saving or trading. Investing is usually associated with putting money aside for a long time rather than trading stocks on a regular basis. Investing involves more risk than saving since investments are not always guaranteed, but savings are.

In simple terms, savings is just like keeping your money somewhere safe. Savings will just help you to save money but doesn’t help it to grow. But investing your money somewhere might either result in profit or loss of your money.

  • Is Savings Account An Investment
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  • Investing in Saving for Education
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Beginners & Investing

When you decide to start investing as a complete beginner, it’s easy to become overwhelmed by all of the options and challenges. However, knowing how to invest isn’t complicated as it may appear at first. The field of investing is vast and there is an infinite number of options that a beginner can invest in. Thus beginners are advised to follow the successful investors which will help them to learn everything about investments and how to make money out through investing.

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Types of Investing

The general rule to make money out of investing is to diversify your investments across all the assets.  By doing so, we can lower the risk. For example, let’s consider that you have invested in both Gold and Real Estate. But all of the sudden, your investment in Gold resulted in low returns which is not the same for Real Estate investments. That’s the reason it’s important to invest in more than one investment type.

While there are many different forms of investments, the following are the most common investment types.

  1. Stocks
  2. Mutual Funds
  3. Bonds
  4. Options
  5. Annuities
  6. ETFs
  7. Certificates of Deposit
  8. Retirement Plans
  9. Cryptocurrencies
  10. Commodities

Stock Investment

Stock is a type of Investment. When an individual buys a stock of companies, then you’re buying a small piece of the company which is also called a Shares. Most of the investors buy the stocks of the company believing that the companies stock will grow. If the companies stocks grow, then the investor can sell the stock for a profit.

How Do Investors Make Money By Buying Stocks?

By buying stocks, investors make money in any of the two ways:

  1. When the investor stocks value goes up while he/she is holding the stock, then they can sell the stock for a profit.
  2. The second method to earn money with the help of stocks is through dividends.  Dividends are payments that are made to shareholders on a regular basis. One must note that not all stocks pay dividends, but the stocks paying dividends are usually paid out every three months.

Also Read,

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Stock Market Crash Vs Correction
Investing In Stocks Vs Real Estate
How To Research Stocks
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Common Stocks
How Does Investing In Stocks Work
Preferred Stocks Is Investing In Stocks Haram
Common Vs Preferred Stocks Is Investing In Stocks Good
Stocks Vs Bonds Is Investing In Stocks Worth It
Setting Budget For Stock Investment
How To Make Money Investing In Stocks
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Individual Stocks
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What Is The Average Stock Market Return? Tips For Investing In Stocks
Best Performing Stocks Benefits Of Investing In Stocks
How To Invest In Stock Market For Beginners Investing Money In Stocks
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What Factors To Consider When Buying Stock India
Understanding The Stock Market

Mutual Funds

Mutual funds are one of the types of investments. Basically, mutual funds are started and managed by Mutual Fund companies that pool money from numerous participants and invests in several assets such as bonds, money market instruments, gold and so on.

Mutual funds are run by professional money managers who are known as fund managers. The fund managers are the person who is responsible to make all investing choices, including when and where to invest and when to sell a holding. The Fund Manager’s purpose is to create the best potential returns for the risk he/she is taking.

Why Invest In Mutual Funds?

Mutual Funds are one of the best good to go options when it comes to investing. The features of mutual funds are given below:

  • Professional Management: As mentioned above, mutual funds do have fund managers who are responsible to research for you.  They choose the securities and keep track of the performance.
  • Diversification: With the help of mutual funds, you can invest in a range of industries, which in turn lower your risk.
  • Cost-effectiveness: The initial investment and future purchases for most mutual funds are fixed at a low capital sum.
  • Liquidity: Investors in mutual funds can simply redeem their shares for the current net asset value (NAV) plus any redemption costs at any time.

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Bonds are high-security debt products that allow a company to raise money and meet its capital needs. It is a type of debt that debtors obtain from private investors for a set period of time. Bonds are issued for investors in primary markets by a variety of organisations, including corporations, governments, municipalities, and other groups. Companies and governments alike use the funds raised to fund corporate operations and infrastructure development.

Bonds are bought for their face value or principal, which is returned at the end of a set period of time. Periodical interest is paid on a proportion of the principal amount at set or adjustable rates by issuers.

Individual bond buyers have legal and financial claims against a company’s debt fund. As a rule, borrowers are responsible for paying the full face value of bonds to these individuals when the period ends. As a result, in the event of a company’s failure, bondholders receive debt recovery payments before stakeholders.

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Options are nothing but a contract that allows investors to buy or sell an underlying asset, such as an exchange-traded fund (ETF) or a security, at a pre-determined price for a specific period of time. All the types of investments such as Stock, Bond and ETF markets supports the Options trading.

There are basically 2 types of Options and they are Call Options & Put Options.

  1. Call Options: Enables the holder to purchase an asset at a specified price within a certain term.
  2. Put Options: Allow the asset’s owner to sell it at a fixed price within a given term.

Also, read:

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  • Understanding Options
  • Options Risk Metrics: The Greeks
  • Buying Call Options
  • Selling Call Options
  • Buying Put Options
  • Selling Put Options
  • Real World Example of an Option
  • Options Spreads
  • Derivatives Trading
  • Advantages of Options Trading
  • Advantages of Derivative Trading


Annuities are financial organisation and distributed (or sold) contracts in which money are invested with the purpose of paying out a set income stream in the future. They are mostly used for retirement planning and to minimize the danger of outliving one’s savings. The holding institution will issue a stream of payments at a later date after annuitization.

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Exchange-Traded Funds – ETFs

An exchange traded fund (ETF) is a form of security that tracks an index, sector, commodity, or other asset and may be bought and sold on a stock exchange like any other stock. An ETF can be set up to track anything from a single commodity’s price to a big and diverse group of securities. ETFs can even be built to follow certain investment strategies.

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Certificates of Deposit

A certificate of deposit (CD) is a bank or credit union product that pays a higher interest rate in exchange for the consumer agreeing to leave a lump-sum deposit untouched for a set length of time. Almost all consumer financial organizations offer them, though each bank decides which Certificate Deposit conditions to provide, how much higher the return will be compared to the bank’s savings and money market products, and what penalties it would impose for early withdrawal.

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  • Specialty CDs from Your Broker

Retirement Plans

There are various numbers of Retirement plans. Retirement plans aren’t a type of investment in and of themselves, but rather a vehicle for making investments, such as buying stocks, bonds, and mutual funds, that are tax-free in one of two ways: either by allowing you to invest pre-tax money (as with a traditional IRA) or by allowing you to withdraw money without paying taxes on it. The investments’ risks are the same as if you were purchasing them outside of a retirement plan.


Cryptocurrencies are a relatively new type of investment. Although Bitcoin is the most well-known cryptocurrency, there are others, including Litecoin and Ethereum. Cryptocurrencies are decentralised digital currencies that are not backed by any government. On cryptocurrency exchanges, you may purchase and sell them. Some stores will even allow you to make a purchase. Cryptocurrencies are known for their unpredictable fluctuations, making them a particularly risky investment.

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  • Should you buy cryptocurrency?
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A commodity is a basic good used in business that may be exchanged for other similar products. Grain, gold, beef, oil, and natural gas are examples of traditional commodities. Commodities, in addition to standard securities, can help investors diversify their portfolio. Because commodity prices tend to move in the opposite direction of stock prices, some investors utilise commodities as a hedge against market volatility.

Previously, commodities trading necessitated a large investment of time, money, and experience, and was primarily reserved for professional traders. There are more alternatives for commodity market participation now.

  1. A History of Commodities Trading
  2. Commodities Market Characteristics
  3. Types of Commodities
  4. Using Futures to Invest in Commodities
  5. Using Options to Invest in Commodities
  6. Using ETFs and Notes to Invest in Commodities
  7. Using Mutual and Index Funds in Commodities
  8. Using Pools and Managed Futures in Commodities

When To Start Investing?

Some people waste years of their lives analyzing the concept of investing and how it benefits them. Because of the danger involved, they are hesitant to consider the investment as a means of wealth growth. Many investments, on the other hand, are risk-free, and others have a low to moderate risk.

When you’re young, first learn everything there is to know about “what is an investment” and its role, and then get started. You have fewer responsibilities when you’re young, so you’re more likely to try out several investing options and exploit the ones that best suit your needs.

Compounding benefits on investments help expand your money, so investing early is also a good idea. With more years ahead of you, you can get the most out of your investments if you first comprehend and assess the various parts of investing and then get started early.

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How To Start Investing?

Investing is a method to put money aside while you’re busy with other things and have it work for you so that you can reap the full benefits of your work in the future. Warren Buffett, the legendary investor, defines investing as “the practise of laying out money now in order to receive more money later.” The purpose of investing is to deposit your money into one or more types of investment vehicles in the hopes of increasing their value over time.

Now the question is how to get started with investing?. Basically, there are 3 ways to start investing and they are:

  1. Do-It-Yourself Investing: The answer to the question of “how to invest” comes down to whether you choose to handle it yourself (DIY) or have your money managed by a professional. Because of their low commissions and convenience of completing trades on their platforms, many investors who want to manage their own money have accounts with discount brokerages.
  2. Professionally-managed Investing: As the name implies, full-service brokers provide a complete range of traditional brokerage services, including financial advice for retirement, healthcare, and all things related to finance. They typically work with high-net-worth clients and can demand significant fees, such as a percentage of your transactions, a percentage of the assets they manage, and occasionally a yearly membership fee.
  3. Robo-Advisor Investing: A robo-advisor may be right for you if you want an algorithm to make financial choices for you, including tax-loss harvesting and rebalancing. And, as the success of index investing has proven, if your goal is to build long-term wealth, a robo-advisor may be a better option.

Also, read

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  • Investing money for beginners
  • How can I start investing with little money?
  • How much should I invest for the first time?
  • How To Start Investing In Stocks?
  • How To Start Investing Money?
  • How To Start Investing In Real Estate?
  • How To Start Investing Activities?
  • How To Start Investing In Stock Market?
  • How To Start Investing In Bonds?
  • How To Start Investing In Bitcoin?
  • How To Start Investing In Shares?
  • How To Start Investing In Cryptocurrency?
  • How To Start Investing In Economics?
  • How To Start Investing In Accounting?
  • How To Start Investing In Forex?
  • How to invest money to make money fast
  • How to start investing in ETFs

Best Investment Options in India

Most investors want to make investments that will provide them with significant returns as rapidly as possible while minimising the danger of losing their principal. This is why so many people are on the search for great investment programmes that will allow them to quadruple their money in a matter of months or years while posing little or no risk.

Unfortunately, there is no investment option that offers both a high return and a minimal risk. In truth, risk and returns are inextricably linked; the higher the returns, the greater the risk, and vice versa.

Before investing in a product, you must match your risk profile with the product’s associated risks. Some investments have a high risk profile but have the potential to provide higher inflation-adjusted returns over time than other asset classes, whereas others have a low risk profile and thus lower returns. Investment products are divided into two categories: financial and non-financial assets.

Market-linked goods (such as stocks and mutual funds) and fixed-income products are two types of financial assets (like Public Provident Fund, bank fixed deposits). Physical gold and real estate are examples of non-financial assets.

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Now let’s look at some of the best investment options in India.

1. PPF – Public Provident Fund

Public Provident Fund in short PPF is investment come savings scheme. PPF scheme was established in India in 1968 with the objective of mobilising small savings in the form of investment with a good return. It’s also known as a tax-saving savings investment scheme since it allows you to create a retirement fund while lowering your annual taxes. A PPF account is a safe investment choice for anyone wishing to save taxes and earn assured profits.

What Is A PPF Account? Where To Open A PPF Account?
How To Open A PPF Account How To Link Aadhaar With A PPF Account Online?
What Is The Interest Rate On PPF? How To Open A PPF Account In A Post Office?
Who Is Eligible To Invest In PPF How To Check PPF Account Balance Online?
Loan Against PPF Account What Is A PPF Account? What Are Its Benefits?
PPF Withdrawal Online How Many Years A Ppf Account Can Be Extended?
Procedure For Withdrawal From PPF How To Withdraw Money From A PPF Account Before Maturity?
What Does Form C Look Like Which Bank Is The Best For A PPF Account?
What Are The Tax Benefits Of Investing In PPF? When To Deposit Money In A PPF Account?
How To Open A PPF Account In SBI Online How Many Times A PPF Account Can Be Extended?
How To Open A PPF Account In HDFC Bank? How Many PPF Accounts Can Be Opened
How To Open A PPF Account Online? How Much Money Can Be Withdrawn From A PPF Account?
Who Can Open A PPF Account? How To Convert A Minor PPF Account To A Major?
How To Withdraw Money From A PPF Account? How To Close A PPF Account In A Post Office?
How To Close A PPF Account? What Is The Minimum Lock-In Period For A PPF Account?
How To Transfer A PPF Account? How Does The PPF Account Work?
How To Link An SBI PPF Account To An SBI Account Online? How To Activate An Inactive PPF Account?
How To Know Your PPF Account Number? Duration Of PPF Account

2. NPS – National Pension Scheme

The Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority manages the National Pension System, which is a long-term retirement-focused investment product (PFRDA). The annual payment required to keep an NPS Tier-1 account active has been cut from Rs 6,000 to Rs 1,000. It includes stocks, term deposits, corporate bonds, liquid funds, and government funds. You can determine how much of your money to invest in equities through NPS according to your risk level.

3. Senior Citizens’ Saving Scheme (SCSS)

The Senior Citizens’ Saving Scheme, which is likely to be most retirees’ first choice, is a must-have in their financial portfolios. This programme is solely open to senior persons or early retirees, as the name implies. Anyone over the age of 60 can apply for SCSS at a post office or a bank.SCSS has a five-year term that can be extended by three years if the scheme reaches maturity. The maximum investment limit is Rs 15 lakh, and several accounts can be opened.SCSS interest is paid on a quarterly basis and is completely taxable. Remember that the scheme’s interest rate is subject to quarterly review and adjustment.

However, if an investment is placed in the scheme, the interest rate will not change until the programme matures. Section 80TTB allows senior citizens to deduct up to Rs 50,000 in interest generated from SCSS in a financial year.

  • What is the SCSS scheme?
  • What is SCSS in the Post Office?
  • What is an SCSS account?
  • How many accounts can be opened under SCSS by a senior citizen?
  • How SCSS works?
  • Which banks offer SCSS?
  • Who can invest in SCSS?
  • Why SCSS?
  • What is the maximum amount one can deposit under SCSS?
  • What is the current interest rate of SCSS?
  • Where to open an SCSS account?
  • How to open an SCSS account online?
  • How to open a SCSS account with SBI?
  • How to fill the Post Office SCSS application form?
  • How to open a SCSS account in ICICI Bank?

4. Pradhan Mantri Vaya Vandana Yojana (PMVVY)

PMVVY is a savings account for elderly adults aged 60 and up that guarantees a 7.4% annual return. The pension income might be paid monthly, quarterly, half-annual, or yearly, depending on your preference. The minimum monthly pension is Rs 1,000 and the maximum monthly pension is Rs 9,250. The programme allows for a maximum investment of Rs 15 lakh. The project is for a period of ten years. The plan is valid until March 31, 2023. The investment amount is repaid to the elderly person upon maturity, and the money is paid to the nominee.

  • What Is Pradhan Mantri Vaya Vandana Yojana?
  • Eligibility For PMVVY
  • Documents Required For PMVVY
  • Benefits Of Pradhan Mantri Vaya Vandana Yojana
  • Pradhan Mantri Vaya Vandana Yojana Agent Commission
  • Pradhan Mantri Vaya Vandana Yojana Plan 856
  • Pradhan Mantri Vaya Vandana Yojana Form
  • How To Buy PMVVY
  • How To Pay PMVVY

5. Real Estate

The house you live in is for personal consumption only and should never be viewed as an investment. The second house you purchase can be used as an investment if you do not intend to reside there. The single most essential element that will influence the value of your property and the rental income it may generate is its location.

Real estate investments pay you in two ways: capital appreciation and rental income. Real estate, on the other hand, is extremely illiquid in comparison to other asset classes. The other major risk is obtaining the required regulatory approvals, which has been substantially solved since the arrival of the real estate regulator.

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  • Objectives of REITs
  • Types of REITs
  • Difference Between REITs and Real Estate Mutual Funds

6. Gold

Having gold in the form of jewellery comes with its own set of issues, such as safety and cost. Then there are the ‘making charges,’ which normally range from 6% to 14% of the gold price (and may go as high as 25 per cent in case of special designs). There is still time to purchase gold coins for those who are interested.

Nowadays, several banks sell gold coins. Paper gold is a different means of owning gold. Paper gold is more cost-effective to invest in and can be done through gold ETFs. With gold as the underlying asset, such investment (buying and selling) takes place on a stock exchange (NSE or BSE). Another way to possess paper gold is to invest in Sovereign Gold Bonds.

ROI – Return of Investments

The return on your investment, also known as ROI, shows you how much money you’ve made. It assists you in selecting the finest investment from several investment possibilities. You can assess the investment depending on your financial objectives and risk appetite. You might also estimate the cost of your investment and look for any hidden fees that can eat into your profits. In most cases, the return on investment is presented as a percentage. In simple terms, the return on investment (ROI) is a financial ratio that allows you to compare the benefits of an investment against the costs.
The formula to calculate the investment return is:
ROI = Net Profit / Cost of the Investment * 100
If you’re an investor, the ROI will show you how profitable your investments are. If you put your money into mutual funds, the return on investment shows you how much money you’ve made. The return on investment (ROI) can be positive or negative. If the return on investment is negative, the investment is actually losing money. You must choose an investment that will provide you with the highest return over time.
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  • How to calculate Return on Investment?
  • Determining ROI using Calculators
  • Uses and Interpretation of ROI
  • Benefits of ROI
  • Limitations of ROI
  • Evolution in ROI
  • Annualized ROI Formula

Investment Risk

The chance or likelihood of experiencing losses in relation to the expected return on any given investment is known as investment risk. Each sort of investment is subject to some level of investment risk, such as market risk (a loss on the invested amount) or default risk (a loss on the invested amount that is never recovered to the investor).

Types of Investment Risks

The types of investments in risks are given below:

  1. Market Risk: Market risk refers to the possibility that an investment will lose value as a result of a variety of economic events that may influence the entire market.
  2. Liquidity Risk: The risk of not being able to sell securities at a reasonable price and convert them to cash is known as liquidity risk. Due to a lack of liquidity in the market, an investor may be forced to sell securities at a considerably lower price, resulting in a loss of value.
  3. Concentration Risk: Concentration Risk refers to the possibility of losing the entire amount invested if it is invested in only one investment or kind of security. If the market value of the security in which the investor has invested falls, the investor loses practically all of the money he or she has invested.
  4. Credit Risk: Credit risk refers to the possibility of a company or government defaulting on a bond it has issued. The bond’s issuer may run into financial difficulties and be unable to pay interest or principal to bondholders, resulting in a default on the bond’s obligations.
  5. Reinvestment Risk: The risk of losing better returns on the capital or income due to the low rate of interest is known as reinvestment risk. Consider the case when a bond with a 7% return has matured and the capital must be invested at 5%, resulting in a loss of the possibility to earn higher yields.
  6. Horizon Risk: Horizon Risk refers to the risk of an investment horizon being shortened as a result of personal events such as job loss, marriage, or home purchase, among others.
  7. Inflation Risk: The risk of losing buying power due to investments that do not produce better returns than inflation is known as inflation risk. Inflation takes away at returns and reduces money’s purchasing power. If the investor’s return on investment is lower than inflation, he or she faces a larger risk of inflation.
  8. Longevity Risk: Longevity risk refers to the possibility of outliving one’s assets or assets, which is particularly relevant to those who are retired or nearing retirement.
  9. Foreign Investment Risk:  The risk of investing in foreign countries is known as foreign investment risk. The investment will lose money if the country as a whole is at risk of decreasing GDP, high inflation, or civil instability.
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  • How To Measure Investment Risk
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  • Significance Of Investment Risk
  • Equity Investment Risk
  • Systematic Risk
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  • Liquidity Risk
  • Interest
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  • Business Risks
  • Equity Risk
  • Credit Risk
  • Operational Risk
  • Concentra Risk

Investment Portfolio

An investor’s investment portfolio is a collection of financial assets such as bonds, equities, currencies, cash and cash equivalents, and commodities. It also refers to a collection of investments that an investor makes in order to make a profit while preserving funds or assets.

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