Vocabulary Building – CA Foundation BCR Notes

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Vocabulary Building – BCR Notes CA Foundation

We can communicate better with others if we know more words. Rich vocabulary helps in both oral and written communication. One can enrich one’s stock of words by reading newspapers, magazines and journals. Interactions with knowledgeable persons, frequently referring to a good dictionary and frequently writing are other means of enriching vocabulary.

Everyone has a limited stock of words i.e. vocabulary. Vocabulary building is a continuous process. To enrich your vocabulary, you must learn –

  • homonyms or pair of words that are similar in sound but different in spelling and meaning
  • synonyms which are words having, nearly the same meaning
  • antonyms or words having opposite meaning
  • single word substitutes for group of words
  • idioms and phrases.

In order to build vocabulary, one must have at least one good general purpose dictionary of modern English and one special purpose dictionary. Names of some of the most popular dictionaries are given below:

  • The Random House Dictionary of the English Language (College Edition)
  • Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary (Full Text Edition)
  • Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary of Current English
  • Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
  • A Business Dictionary (Oxford University Press)
  • Webster’s Collegiate English Dictionary
  • Roget’s Thesaurus : A Dictionary of Synonyms and Antonyms.

A systematic and step-by-step approach needs to be adopted to build and expand our vocabulary. The main steps in this approach are as follows

Vocabulary Building – CA Foundation BCR Notes

Learn Derivatives:
Whenever you consult a dictionary to know the meaning of a new word, you must learn the derivatives or new words that arise from the original or ‘root’/word. For example, look at the following roots and their derivatives:

Root Derivatives
able ability
absent absence
access accessary, accessorial, accessory
acclaim acclamation, acclimatization
account accountancy, accountant
advice advise, adviser, advisory
agree agreed, agreeable, agreement
ambit ambition, ambivalance
analyse analysis, analyst
article articular, articulate, articulation
assemble assembly, assemblage
bail bailey, bailiff
bank banker, banking, bankrupt
broker brokerage, broking
budget budgetary, budgeting
casual casualty
centre centralize, centralization
decent decentralization
effuse effusion, effusive
fabric fabricate, fabrication, fabricator
globe global, globalization
habit habitable, habitant, habitat, habitual
jug juggery, jaguar
keep keeper, keeping, keep sake
lace lacerate, laceration
manage management, manager, managerial
nebula nebular, nebulize, nebulous
part partition, partner
race racial, racism
sabot sabotage, saboteur
tab tabard, tabaret, tabby

Build Vocabulary With Prefixes And Suffixes:
Word Formation:
Word formation is the process of forming new words English words are formed from morphemes which are the smallest unit of speech. These may have a meaning or grammatical function. Morphemes are of two kinds – roots and affixes prefixes and suffixes. Root is that part of a word which has no affixes. The distinction between root and affixes is shown in
the following table:

Prefix Root Suffix
Dis grace ful
Un bear able
Un digest able

The process of adding an affix to the root word in order to modify its meaning or to create a new word is called affixation.

A prefix means a syllable put before a word to qualify its meaning. On the contrary, a suffix is a syllable which is put after a word to qualify its meaning. Prefixes and suffixes in modern English are innumerable. But most of them are derived from old English, Latin and Greek. One can improve one’s vocabulary considerably by learning proper use of prefixes and suffixes. These also help us in learning spelling.
1. Prefixes : Prefixes are of three types :
(a) Number Prefixes : These denote numbers

  • uni (one) : uniform, unilateral, unison
  • mono (one) : monopoly, monogamy, monologic
  • bi (two) : bicycle, bilingual, bigamy
  • ambi (on both sides) : ambiguous, ambivalent
  • tri (three) : tricycle, triangle, trinity
  • quad (four) : quadruped, quadrilateral, quadrangle
  • multi (many) multimillionaire : multiple, multifarious
  • cent (hundred) : centigrade, centenary, century
  • poly (many) : polygamy, polyglot, polytechnic

(b) Negative Prefixes: When added to a word, the word. The negative prefixes include a, Observe the following pairs of the words :
a (amoral, anarchy, apathy, atheist) de (decade, decode, decline, deform)
dis:

  • agree – disagree
  • advantage – disadvantage
  • affirm – disaffirm
  • appear – disappear
  • approve – disapprove
  • assemble – disassemble
  • burden – disburden
  • charge – discharge
  • close – disclose
  • concert – disconcert
  • content – discontent
  • courtesy – discourtesy
  • embark – disembark
  • favour – disfavour
  • grace – disgrace
  • infect – disinfect
  • like – dislike
  • mantle – dismantle
  • organize – disorganize
  • arms – disarms
  • ability – disability
  • allow – disallow
  • arrange – disarrange
  • assimilation – disassimilation
  • belief – disbelief
  • claim – disclaim
  • comfort – discomfort
  • connect – disconnect
  • courage – discourage
  • cover – discover
  • engage – disengage
  • figure – disfigure
  • honest – dishonest
  • illusion – disillusion
  • joint – disjoint
  • locate – dislocate
  • order – disorder
  • place – displace
  • please – displease
  • respect – disrespect
  • service – disservice
  • sociable – dissociable
  • taste – distaste
  • tend – distend

il:

  • advised – iladvised
  • legal – illegal
  • anti (against): – antidote, antiseptic, antisocial
  • legible – illegible
  • literate – illiterate
  • logical – illogical

im:

  • balance – imbalance
  • maculate – immaculate
  • material – immaterial
  • mobile – immobile
  • moral – immoral
  • movable – immovable
  • partial – impartial
  • patience – impatience
  • permanent – impermanent
  • pure – impure
  • proper in – improper

Vocabulary Building – CA Foundation BCR Notes

in:

  • active – inactive
  • ability – inability
  • attention – inattention
  • active – inactive
  • born – inborn
  • breeding – inbreeding
  • capable – incapable
  • capacity – incapacity
  • definite – indefinite
  • different – indifferent
  • decent – indecent
  • efficiency – inefficiency
  • elastic – inelastic
  • equality – inequality
  • famous – infamous
  • flexible – inflexible
  • glorious – inglorious
  • hale – inhale
  • human – inhuman
  • imitable inimitable
  • judicious – injudicious
  • variable – invariable
  • organic – inorganic
  • road – inroad
  • sane – insane
  • secure – insecure
  • tangible – intangible
  • valid – invalid
  • valuable – invaluable

ir:

  • rational – irrational
  • recoverable – irrecoverable
  • redeemable – irredeemable
  • regular – irregular

mis:

  • adventure – misadventure
  • behaviour – misbehaviour
  • calculate – miscalculate
  • direct – misdirect
  • fire – misfire
  • fortune – misfortune
  • guide – misguide
  • lead – mislead
  • manage – mismanage
  • spell – misspell
  • use – misuse
  • understand – misunderstand
  • place – misplace
  • trust – mistrust
  • take – mistake
  • spell – misplace
  • understand – misunderstand

non:

  • cooperation – non-cooperation
  • sense – nonsense
  • vegetarian – non-vegetarian
  • violence – nonviolence

un:

  • acceptable – unacceptable
  • balance – unbalance
  • certain – uncertain
  • decided – undecided
  • educated – uneducated
  • faithful – unfaithful
  • graceful – ungraceful
  • harmed – unharmed
  • impressive – unimpressive
  • kind – unkind
  • lawful – unlawful
  • married – unmarried
  • natural – unnatural
  • planned – unplanned
  • read – unread
  • seen – unseen
  • taught – untaught
  • well – unwell
  • wise – unwise
  • yielding – unyielding
  • happy – unhappy
  • fair – unfair
  • do – undo
  • load – unload
  • lock – unlock
  • true – untrue
  • be (around) – Bedeck, befriend, behead
  • em (to cover) – embalance, embody, empower
  • en (cause) – enable, endanger, enrich

(c) Other Prefixes:

  • bi (two) : bicycle, bilateral, bilingual
  • di (two) : dichotomy, diameter, dipole
  • tri (three) : triangle, tricycle, tripartite
  • mono (one) : monoacting, monopoly, monosyllable
  • uni (one) : uniform, unilateral, universe
  • multi (many) : multiple, multilingual, multinational
  • poly (many) : polygamy, polygon, polysyllable
  • ante (before) : antecedent, antedate, antenupital
  • ante (against) : anteroom, anteversion, antefix
  • auto (self) : autobiography, automation, autosuggestion
  • bene (good) : benefit, benevolent, benign
  • bio (life) : biochemistry, biography, biology
  • chron (time) : chronicle, chronological, chronometer
  • circum (around) : circumsference, circumlocution, circumscribe
  • co (together) : coalition, coexist, coincide, coincidence
  • contra (against) : contradict, contrary, contrast
  • counter (against) : counteract, counterfeit, counterpoint, countersign
  • en (make) : enrich, ensure, entangle
  • ex (former) : ex-wife, ex-chairman, ex-president
  • geo (earth) : geocentric, geology, geometry
  • hydro (water) : hvdropathy, hydrophobîa, hydrotropic
  • hyper (above) : hyperactive, hyperbolic, hvperrnarket hypertension
  • hypo (under) : hvpoc risy, hypomania, hypothesis
  • inter (between) : intermediate, intermix, international
  • magni (great) : magnificent, magnify, magnitude
  • mal (bad) : maladministration, maldistribution, malnutrition
  • ah (away) : abnormal, abstract, abount’
  • arch (chief) : archbishop, archduke
  • extra (outside) : extraordinary, extra curricular
  • mini (lesser) : minicab, minibus, miniskirt
  • micro (small) : micrometer, microphone, microscope, microwave
  • phys (of the body) : physical, physiotherapy, physique
  • pre (before) : preface, preliminary, premature, prepare
  • pro (for) : proclaim, profess, pronoun, promotion
  • pseudo (sham) : pseudograph, pseudonym, pseudoscope
  • psyche (of the mind) : psychology, psychic, psychiatrist
  • quasi (almost) : quasi-judicial, quasi-official, quasi-religious
  • retro (back) : retroact, retrogress, retrospect
  • out (surpass) : outdo, outgrow, outshine
  • over (too much) sur : overdo, over crowd, over flow, over confident
  • (over and above) : surcharge, surpass, surtax
  • under (too little) : undercook, under-estimate, undersell, underprivileged
  • ultra (beyond) : ultra modern, ultra violet
  • semi (half) : semi-circle, semi-colon, semi-final
  • sub (under) : submarine, substandard, subway, subhuman
  • super (above) : superfine, superior, supernatural
  • tele (at a distance) : telephone, telescope, television
  • trans (across) : transform, transnational, transverse

Vocabulary Building – CA Foundation BCR Notes

2. Suffixes

  • al (action) : cultural, dismissal, natural, legal, national, refusal
  • age (result) : drainage
  • an (person) : American, Asian, Indian
  • ar (action) : familiar, regular, singular
  • ant : disinfectant, inhabitant
  • ary (belonging to) : customary, honorary, necessary
  • ate : accurate, fortunate obstinate
  • action : exploration, organisation
  • er : binder, glimmer, stationer, teenager, driver
  • eer : engineer, profiter, volunteer
  • ess (female) : actress, lioness, waitress
  • dom (condition) : kingdom, stardom
  • ery : gentry, machinery, slavery
  • ent : dependent, different
  • re (again, back) : recall, reclaim, rewrite, reunion
  • fore (before) : forearm, forecast, foretell
  • post (after) : postgraduate, postscript, post-war
  • cide (kill) : germicide, insecticide, suicide
  • en (make) : blacken, weaken, whiten, gladden, sudden
  • fill (made of) : beautiful, careful, useful
  • gamy (marriage) : biogamy, monogamy, polygamy
  • graph (written) : autograph, photograph, telegraph
  • logy (study of) : astrology, biology, psychology, zoology
  • mania (extremes) : bibliomania, kleptomania, megatomania
  • phobia (dread of) : agoraphobia, claustrophobia, hydrophobia
  • phone (sound) : gramophone, microphone, telephone
  • scope (examine) : microscope, periscope, telescope.

Pairs or Groups of Words:
There are several pairs or groups of words that are similar in sound but are different in spelling and meaning. These are called homonyms. Right words have a positive effect while ill-chosen words cause friction. Many pairs of words that sound somewhat similar, their meanings and sentences are given below:
1. Able (having the skill or power): A rich person having enough money is able to help the poor.
Capable (having the ability or power): Mohan is capable of working for twelve hours a day.

2. Abandon (to leave completely): He is so poor that he abandoned his wife and children.
Abundance (plentiful): There is abundance of foreign exchange reserves in India now.

3. Access (right of entering): Students in my college have easy access to the library.
Excess (more than reasonable): Excess of everything is bad.

4. Accident (mishap): Madhu met with a serious accident.
Incident (event): The guest narrated an interesting incident.

5. Adapt (becoming suitable): Renu has adapted herself to the American culture.
Adept (expert): Sohan is adept in surfing the internet.
Adopt (to make one’s own or to approve): The pay commission adopted her suggestions.
The childless couple adopted a child from me orphanage.

6. Advice (noun): Anyone can offer advice.
Advise (verb): The teacher advised the students to work hard.

7. Affect (influence): Junk food affected his health.
Effect (result): The principal effected several changes in the college.

8. Allude (making an indirect reference): The witness did not name Deepak but he was clearly alluding to Deepak.
Elude (to escape): The rabbit eluded the hunter. The name of this place eludes my memory.

9. Alternate (turn by turn): Rekha visits the temple alternate day.
Alternative (a choice between two or more courses) 47: He had the alternative of accepting transfer or lose the job.

10. Appraise (to judge the worth) : The customer appraised the diamond carefully before she bought it.
Apprise (to inform): The Principal apprised of the leakage of question paper.

11. Artist (a practitioner of fine art): Bismillah Khan was a great artist.
Artiste (a professional performer) Amir Khan is a cine artiste.
Artisans (skilled workmen): Indian artisans make a large number of useful products.

12. Artistic (beautiful): The stonework of Akshardham Temple is very artistic.
Artificial (man made): Dal Lake in Srinagar is not artificial.
Artful (clever): Artful politicians often win elections.

13. Artifice (deception): Roshan got a foreign posting by artifice.
Artistry (artistic skill): Everybody cannot appreciate the artistry of Hawa Mahal in Jaipur.

14. Averse (oppose) : Civilised persons are averse to dirty jokes.
Adverse (going against): The Director of Marketing is adverse to flattery.

15. Bail (money deposited in the court to free a prisoner) : The thief was granted bail.
Bale (a mass of goods): One hundred bales of jute were loaded in the truck.

16. Bare (uncovered): The beggar’s feet were bare.
Bear (endure): Who will bear this loss?

17. Beneficial (useful): Morning walk is beneficial to health.
Beneficent (Kind hearted): Beneficent people helped the victims of flood.

18. Berth (bed): Senior citizens use given lower berths in railway compartments.
Birth (coming into life): The birth of a child made the couple happy.

19. Beside (next to) : The Lord Jagannath Temple at Puri is situated beside the sea.
Besides (in addition to): Besides Mr. Kamath five others attended the meeting of the Board of Directors.

20. Casual (not permanent): Ten casual workers are employed in this company.
Causal (connection) : There is some causal relationship between purchasing power and demand.

21. Check (verify): The auditor checked the books of account.
Cheque (a negotiable instrument): My father gave me a blank cheque.

22. Cite (quote): The lawyer cited an example in support of his argument.
Site (Place): This is the site for our new factory.
Sight (view): Kashmir is a beautiful sight.

23. Collaborate (to work together) : India and Russia collaborated in launching this missile.
Corroborate (to support): The person who was present at the site corroborated the statement of the police.

24. Confident (showing confidence) : The team is confident of winning the match.
Confidant (a person to whom one tells one’s secrets) : Our English teacher is the confidant of the Principal.

25. Decease (dead): People prayed for the soul of their deceased leader.
Disease (illness): Cancer is a terrible disease.

26. Dependent (that depends on): Health is dependent on right food, regular exercise and positive thinking.
Dependant (one who depends on others) : This head of the family has a large number of dependants.

27. Device (noun): E W. Taylor invented a new device to save labour.
Devise (verb): The chairman devised a new plan to boost sales.

28. Economic (relating to earning money): India is now in an excellent economic condition.
Economical (not wasteful): Sea travel is more economical than by air travel.

29. Elicit (draw out): She wrote a polite letter to elicit a reply.
Illicit (unlawful): That are illicit distilleries in this town.

30. Emigrant (one who leaves his country to live in another) : Tom Alter a cine artist is an emigrant from Great Britain.
Immigrant (one who comes to live in a foreign country): There are a large number of Indian immigrants in USA.

31. Ensure (to make certain): Ram worked hard to ensure success in the examination.
Insure (to protect against loss) : I have insured my house against fire.
Assure (to promise): The doctors assured the patient of best treatment.

32. Equal (the same): Under the Constitution of India women are entitled to equal pay for equal work.
Equitable (just and fair) : Management should handle the workers in an equitable manner.

33. Exhausting (tiring): Hockey is an exhausting game.
Exhaustive (to consider all aspects) : The researcher has made an exhaustive study of the problem.

34. Expedient (useful): The management thought it expedient to consult the workers’ representatives before deciding the new promotion policy of the company.
Expeditious (quick) : The ambulance carried the patient to the hospital expeditiously.

Vocabulary Building – CA Foundation BCR Notes

35. Final (last): The final match of the series was played on Saturday.
Finale (last section of a show): The finale of the awards ceremony was spectacular with all the awardees presenting a dance.

36. Gate (main door): The gates of the Ram Lala in Ayodhya remained closed for a long time.
Gait (walking style) : The models walking on the ramp had a charming gait.

37. Historic (memorable) : Pandit Nehru delivered a historic speech on the night of August 14, 1947.
Historical (relating to history): Taj Mahal at Agra is one of the historical buildings in India.

38. Human (mankind): It is human to err.
Humane (benevolent): India accorded a humane treatment to the prisoners of war

39. Illicit (against a law): Police is investigating illicit trading in drugs.
Illegal (against the law): It is illegal to drive without a valid driving license.
Illegitimate (disallowed by the rules): A child born to an unmarried mother is called illegitimate.

40. Industrial (concerning industry): Surat is an industrial city in Gujarat.
Industrious (hard working): Industrious persons are likely to succeed in life.

41. Interrupt (to interfere): The teacher asked the students not to interrupt the lecture.
Intervene (to stop something undesirable): The war between the two countries came to an end after the intervention of the United Nations.

42. Judicial (concerning law): Courts deal with judicial matters.
Judicious (wise): People who make judicious decisions need not repent.

43. Lose (deprived of): You never lose by playing
Loose (not fitting closely): Sadhus wear loose clothes.

44. Momentary (one that lasts for a very short period): The power failure today was momentary.
Momentous (very important): The Platinum Jubilee of our college was indeed a momentous occasion.

45. Negligent (careless): Students who are negligent in studies often fail in examinations.
Negligible (very little): There has been negligible rise in the company’s sales.

46. Observance (following law or customs): Observance of traffic rules helps to minimise accidents on the road.
Observation (noticing): Scientists generally have strong observation.

47. Official (concerning the office): These are the official documents of our company.
Officious (too eager to tell people about rules): The new branch manager became unpopular because he is so officious.

48. Persecute (to treat in a cruel manner): Asians fled from Uganda at the time of persecution by Idi Amin.
Prosecute (to file criminal charges): Harshad Mehta was prosecuted for stock market scam.
Personal (concerning a person): I never like interference in my personal matters.
Personnel (the people employed in an organisation): The personnel in Infosys Technologies are hardworking and intelligent.

49. Plain (frank) : Plain and blunt people are not popular.
Plane (level): Hills do not have plane surface.

50. Practice (used as a noun): Practice makes a person perfect
Practise (used as a verb): Sohan practises law in Mumbai.

51. Refuge (shelter): The poor man sought refuse in our home
Refuse (not accept): The officer refused to grant his request.
Refuse (dirt): This colony is littered with refuse.

52. Rout (complete defeat): Indian army routed the Pakistani army in 1971 war.
Route (the path): The route to Ladakh is difficult.
Root (core): The root of this tree is very deep.

53. Site (piece of ground): The Delhi Development Authority auctioned several sites for malls in Delhi.
Sight (seen): Her eyesight is weak.
Cite (quote): Can you cite some examples in support of your argument.

54. Social (relating to society): Mahatma Gandhi fought against the social evil of untouchability.
Sociable (liking for people): People who are sociable have several friends.

55. Stationary (standing still): The truck hit his stationary car.
Stationery (paper, pen, etc.): The students bought stationery

56. Superficial (not deep): Superficial knowledge of science cannot make you a good scientist.
Superfluous (more than necessary): A good report should not contain superfluous words.

57. Wait (to stay till some one/something comes): I will wait for the arrival of the train.
Await (to wait for): Students are awaiting for the results of the Board Examination.

58. Veracity (truthfulness): The policy vouched for the veracity of the witness Statement.
Voracity (unlimited hunger for something): The farmer’s voracity for money prompted him to kill the goose who laid golden eggs.

Synonyms And Antonyms:
Homonym refer to a word that has the same sound and spelling as another, but is different in meaning and origin. Examples: gait-gate; heard-herd.

Vocabulary Building – CA Foundation BCR Notes

Synonyms (words that have nearly the same meaning):
A:

  • Aback : Confused, Surprised
  • Abandon : Forsake, Desert, Leave
  • Ability : Competency, Capacity, Skill
  • Abnormal : Peculiar, Unusual, Unnatural
  • Abridge : Condense, Curtail, Lessen, shorten
  • Absolute : Complete, Unrestricted, Unconditional
  • Absurd : Funny, Ridiculous, Silly
  • Absorb : Engulf, Assimilate
  • Abundant : Ample, Plentiful
  • Achieve : Accomplish, Gain
  • Accumulate : Amass, Collect, Store
  • Adept : Clever, Proficient, Skilled
  • Adequate : Enough, Sufficient
  • Admiration : Praise, Respect
  • Advance : Rise, Promote, Improve ,
  • Affliction : Distress, Sorrow, Suffering
  • Aggravate : Heighten, Intensify
  • Alarm Alien : Bell, Fear, Excite
  • Amiable : Charming, Friendly
  • Alliance : Friendship, Treaty
  • Annex : Attach, Appendix
  • Announce : Proclaim, Say
  • Answer : Reply, Solution
  • Appetite : Hunger, Relish
  • Apprehend : Fear, Dread
  • Assistance : Help, Support
  • Attack : Assault Assail
  • Audacious : Bold, Defiant, Daring
  • Authentic : Reliable, True
  • Awkward : Clumsy, Inopportune

B:

  • Babble : Inarticulate, Incoherent, Blab, Foolish
  • Backward : Reversed, Retailed
  • Bad : Inferior, Unfit, Defective
  • Baffle : Hinder, Perplex
  • Bald : Bare, Hairless, Plain
  • Bar : Rod, Barrier, Obstruct
  • Base : Bottom, Foundation
  • Beam : Rafter, Radiate
  • Blame : Accuse, censure
  • Border : Edge, Limit, Debenture
  • Break . : Interrupt, Shatter
  • Brisk : Bright, Quick, Lively
  • Brutal : Cruel, Inhuman, Savage
  • Bulk : Mass, Volume, Pile

C:

  • Call : Invite, Announce, Summon
  • Callous : Cruel, Hard, Insensitive
  • Calm : Quiet, Tranquil, Poised
  • Calon : Quiet, Poised, Tranquil
  • Cancel : Annul, Crossout, Neutralise
  • Candid : Frank, Sincere
  • Canny : Cautious, Thrifty, Shrewd
  • Category : Class, Kind
  • Chafe : Friction, Irritate
  • Civil : Courteous, Polite
  • Cogent : Clean, Powerful, Relevant
  • Cold : Frigid, Indifferent
  • Command : Order, Sway, Mastery
  • Common : General, Ordinary
  • Compassion : Pity, Sympathy
  • Compatible : Congruous, Consistent
  • Concise : Brief, Succinct, Short
  • Condemn : Blame, Censure
  • Condense : Compress, Thicken
  • Conversant : Familiar
  • Confirm : Ratify, Strengthen
  • Cordial : Friendly, Hearty, Warm
  • Corrupt : Debarred, Deprived, Tainted
  • Crafty : Cunning, Foxy, Sly
  • Criterion : Rule, Standard
  • Crucial : Critical, Decisive
  • Curb : Check, Harness
  • Cut : Diminish, Trim

D:

  • Dainty : Fastidious, Refined
  • Damage : Harm, Injury, Loss
  • Dash : CoLlision, Rush, Run
  • Deal : Bargain, Agreement
  • Deficient : Inadequate, Insufficient, Lackii
  • Denial : Refusal, Repudiation
  • Denounce : Accuse, Censure, Condemn
  • Depress : Sudden, Weaken
  • Desolate : Lonely, Wretched
  • Deteriorate : Decline, Degenerate, Worsen
  • Devious : Crooked, Wrong
  • Dexterity : Adroitness, Deftness, Skill
  • Diffident : Hesitant, Sly, Timid
  • Diligent : Industrious, Persevering
  • Discharge : Dismiss, Remove, Free
  • Disgrace : Dishonour, Notoriety, Shame
  • Distinct : Different, Unique
  • Draw : Attract, Elicit, Stretch
  • Duplicate Twofold, Doubled, Copy

E:

  • Eccentric : Irregular, whimsical
  • Economical : Frugal, Thrifty
  • Elastic : Adaptable, Flexible, Supple, Springy
  • Elegant : Nice, Refined, Tasteful
  • Emancipate : Liberate, Free
  • Eradicate : Destroy, Remove, Uproot
  • Essential : Necessary, Requisite
  • Exceptional : Rare, Unusual, Extraordinary
  • Extravagant : Prodigal, Spendthrift, Wasteful
  • Extraordinary : Astonishing, Remarkable, Uncommon
  • Exquisite : Fine, Elegant

F:

  • Fabricate : Construct, Devise, Forge
  • Faith : Confidence, Trust
  • Fallacious : Deceptive, False
  • False : Fake, Spurious, Untrue
  • Famous : Known, Popular
  • Fictitious : False, Untrue, Imagined
  • Flaw : Defect, Fault
  • Follow : Imitate, Pursue, Obey
  • Fraud : Deceit, Trickery
  • Furry : Anger, Rage
  • Futile : Useless, Trifling

G:

  • Gain : Increase, Profit
  • Gaiety : Happy, Joyful, Mirth
  • Gallant : Courageous, Stately
  • General : Common, Usual
  • Gigantic : Colossal, Great, Huge
  • Goal : Aim, Objective, Purpose
  • Grievous : Distressing, Painful, Sorrowful
  • Gulf : Abyss, Pit, Gap
  • Gratification : Satisfaction, enjoyment

H:

  • Habitual : Customary, Usual
  • Hamper : Hinder, Impede
  • Handsome : Charming, Beautiful
  • Hazardous : Dangerous, Perilous, Risky
  • Hollow : Empty, False, Worthless
  • Humble : Modest, Polite
  • Humane : Kind, Benevolent
  • Humility : Modest, Politeness

I:

  • Idea : Notion, Opinion
  • Idle : Unemployed, Unused, Lazy
  • Illicit : Forbidden, Improper, Unauthorised
  • Imitation : Resembling, Copy
  • Immaterial : Negligible, Unimportant
  • Inadvertent : Careless, Negligent
  • Incompetent : Incapable, Unfit
  • Independent : Free, Seifreliant
  • Indignant : Angry
  • Inexorable : Merciless, Relentless
  • Ingenious : Artless, Candid, Sincere
  • Insidious : Cunning, Treacherous
  • Irresolute : Undecided, Vacillating, Wavering

J:

  • Jest : Taunt, Witticism
  • Joy : Delight, Happiness
  • Jubilant : Cheerful, Joyful
  • Judicious : Discreet, Prudent, wise
  • Jumble : Medley, Muddle, Flounder

K:

  • Keen : Eager, Pungent
  • Knock : Rap, Thumping

Vocabulary Building – CA Foundation BCR Notes

L:

  • Laborious : Assiduous, Industrious
  • Least : Minimum, Lowest
  • Liberal : Generous, Plentiful
  • Lone : Alone, Isolated
  • Loyal : Devoted, Faithful
  • Luster : Brilliance, Gloss

M:

  • Malice : Spite, Iliwill
  • Magnificent : Grand, Splendid
  • Malign : Hate, Pathol
  • Marvellous : Astonishing, Wonderful
  • Miraculous : Marvellous, Wonderful
  • Mockery : Contempt, Ridicule
  • Morbid : Diseased, Gloomy, Unhealthy
  • Murmur : Grumble, Mumble
  • Meagre : Small, Scanty

N:

  • Nasty : Filthy, Unpleasant
  • Nervous : Agitated, Apprehensive
  • Nimble : Agile, Witted, Alert
  • Normal : Common, Usual, General
  • Numerous : Many, Several
  • Notable : Remarkable, Memorable
  • Negligent : Careless, Heedless

O:

  • Opportune : Timely, Convenient
  • Objective : Aim, Purpose
  • Obliterate : Cancel, Destroy, Efface
  • Obsolete : Antiquated, Outdated
  • Observe : See, Notice
  • Onerous : Burdensome, Oppressive
  • Opposite : Contrary, Opposite
  • Ordain : Decree, Command, Enact
  • Obtuse : Dull, Stupid

P:

  • Plentiful : Abundant
  • Pant : Puff, Throb
  • Particular : Careful, Fastidious
  • Partition : Division, Separation
  • Pathetic : Miserable, Touching
  • Peculiar : Special, Unique
  • Pick : Choose, Select
  • Poke : Jab, Push, Meddle
  • Popular : Famous, Known
  • Portray : Depict, Draw, Sketch
  • Precarious : Doubtful, Uncertain
  • Pretence : Excuse, Pretext, Show
  • Prime : Fundamental, Main
  • Prodigal : Generous, Profuse
  • Purpose : Aim, Objective
  • Persuade : Induce, urge

Q:

  • Quaver : Tremble, Trill
  • Questionable : Doubtful, Disputable

R:

  • Radiant : Bright, Shinning
  • Reason : Cause, Logic, Argument
  • Rebellion : Mutiny, Revolt
  • Recede : Diminish, Lessen
  • Reciprocal : Opposite, Reverse
  • Remorse : Regret, Repentance
  • Renown : Fame, Reputation
  • Resistance : Hindrance, Opposition
  • Refined : Elegant, Cultivated
  • Reiterate : Repeat
  • Relevant : Pertinent
  • Reticence : Reservation, Silence
  • Riddle : Enigma. Screen
  • Rigid : Inflexible, unyielding
  • Rip : Cut,Tear
  • Rogue : Mischievous, Fraudulent
  • Rudiment : Elementary, Vestigial
  • Ruin : Destruction, Dilapidation
  • Repudiate : Reject, Discard

S:

  • Sane : Sensible
  • Sacred : Holy, Venerable
  • Safe : Reliable, Secure
  • Scanty : Meagre, Slender
  • Secret : Hidden, Mystery
  • Sensual : Hedonism, Lustful
  • Shrewd : Acute, Canny, Wily
  • Sick : Ill, Diseased unwell
  • Slender : Scanty, Slight
  • Sonorous : Melodious, Resonant, Rhetorical
  • Sordid : Filthy, Disgusting, Base, Ugly
  • Special : Distinctive, Particular, Unique
  • Specimen : Sample, Model
  • Splendid : Grand, Magnificent, Brilliant
  • Spurious : Fake, Imaginary, Copied
  • Sterile : Barren, Unproductive
  • Stubborn : Inflexible, Obstinate, Rigid
  • Sublime : Exalted, Elevated, Grandiose
  • Submission : Obedience, Surrender
  • Superficial : Cursory, Shallow
  • Sure : Confident, Reliable, Unfailing
  • Scandal : Infamy, Slander

T:

  • Temperate Moderate
  • Tack Nail, Stitch
  • Tedious Boring. Uninteresting, Wearisome
  • Thoughtful : Contemplative, Pensive
  • Thrifty : Economical, Frugal
  • Thrive : Flourish, Prosper
  • Tickle : Amuse, Please, Tingle
  • Top : Peak, Summit
  • Transient : Passing, Temporary
  • Tug : Drag, Pull
  • Tentative : Experimental

U:

  • Ugly : Repulsive, Unpleasant
  • Unique : Excellent, Unparalleled
  • Urge : Drive, Impel, Desire
  • Useful : Beneficial, Helpful
  • Urbane : Polite, Courteous

V:

  • Vagrant : Wanderer, Wayward
  • Various : Many, Several
  • Vent : Flue, Outlet
  • Vigilant : Alert, Watchful
  • Voracious : Greedy, Hungry
  • Vulgar : Coarse, Crude

W:

  • Want : Desire, Need
  • Weary : Exhausted, Tired
  • Wealthy : Rich, Well-to-do
  • Whole : Aggregate, Total
  • Wise : Discreet, Intelligent
  • Wonky : Tottery, Unsteady
  • Wretched : Miserable, Unfortunate
  • Wholesome : Healthy, Sound

Y:

  • Yearn : Crave, Desire
  • Yell : Howl, Scream
  • Yield : Surrender

Z:

  • Zeal : Passion, Lust
  • Zenith : Peak, Top
  • Zest : Enthusiasm, Passion

Vocabulary Building – CA Foundation BCR Notes

Antonyms (Words having opposite meaning):
A:

  • Adopt : Discard, Reject
  • Affluence : Poverty
  • After : Before
  • Agree : Disagree
  • Alike : Dissimilar
  • Ample : Shortage, Inadequate
  • Analysis : Synthesis
  • Ancient : Modern
  • Appreciate : Depreciate
  • Arrival : Departure
  • Arrogant : Humble
  • Artificial : Genuine, Natural
  • Assent : Dissent
  • Attach : Detach
  • Awkward : Graceful
  • Authentic : Fake, Spurious
  • Awful : Unimpressive
  • Arrival : Department

B:

  • Bliss : Misery
  • Babble : Articulate, Coherent
  • Back : Front
  • Beautiful : Ugly
  • Big : Small
  • Borrow : Lend
  • Boom : Depression
  • Brave : Coward
  • Bull : Bear
  • Busy : Idle
  • Belief : Disbelief

C:

  • Case : Neglect
  • Calm : Agitated
  • Candid : Partial, Biased
  • Cautious : Rash, Reckless
  • Censure : Applaud, Praise
  • Certain : Uncertain
  • Cheerful : Depressed, Gloomy
  • Clean : Dirty
  • Coarse : Fine, Soft
  • Callous : Soft, Tender
  • Create : Destroy
  • Compare : Contrast
  • Comfort : Discomfort
  • Competent : Incompetent
  • Conceal : Expose, Reveal
  • Condense : Expand, Lengthen
  • Confidence : Diffidence, Doubt
  • Continue : Break, Discontinue
  • Credit : Debit, Discredit
  • Crude : Refined, Soft
  • Curtail : Enlarge, Expand
  • Condense : Expand

D:

  • Delay : Haste
  • Daft : Clever
  • Damp : Dry
  • Definite : Indefinite, Vague
  • Delicate : Hard
  • Denial : Acceptance
  • Destroy : Create
  • Dexterity : Inefficiency
  • Diligence : Laziness
  • Discourage : Encourage
  • Disorder : Order
  • Dodge : Face
  • Dull : Bright
  • Distant : Near
  • Dcspair : Hope

E:

  • Early : Late
  • Easy : Difficult
  • Economical : Extravagant, Uneconomical
  • Eligible : Ineligible
  • Enmity : Friendship
  • Equality : Inequality
  • Entrance : Exit
  • Exact : Inexact
  • Explicit : Implicit
  • Extensive : Intensive
  • External : Internal
  • Exterior : Interior
  • Extraordinary : Ordinary

F:

  • Faith : Doubt
  • Fact : Fiction
  • Failure : Success
  • Fake : Genuine
  • Famous : Notorious
  • Few : Many
  • Flexible : Rigid
  • Follow : Lead
  • Folly : Wisdom
  • Foolish : Wise
  • Foreign : Native
  • Fundamental : Elementary
  • Fickle : Constant

G:

  • Gaiety : Mourning, Sorrow
  • Gain : Loss
  • Gallant : Coward
  • General : Particular
  • Genuine : Fake
  • Give : Take
  • Good : Bad
  • Growth : Decline
  • Guide : Misguide

H:

  • Haggard : Stout
  • Half : Full
  • Haughty : Humble
  • Heavy : Light
  • High : Low
  • Hope : Despair
  • Host : Guest
  • Huge : Small
  • Humility : Arrogance
  • Homogeneous : Heterogeneous
  • Honour : Dishoriour
  • Humble : Proud

I:

  • Idle : Busy
  • Illegal : Legal
  • Impel : Dispel
  • Implicit : Explicit
  • Imperative : Optional
  • Include : Exclude
  • Interesting : Boring
  • Irreversible : Reversible

J:

  • Jittery : Confident
  • Joint : Separate
  • Justice : Injustice

K:

  • Kind : Cruel
  • Known : Unknown

L:

  • Lack : Plenty
  • Lagging : Leading
  • Languid : Energetic, Vigorous
  • Least : Maximum
  • Loose : Tight
  • Liberty : Slavery
  • Loss : Profit
  • Legible : Illegible
  • Luxury : Necessity
  • Legal : Illegal
  • Loyal : Treacherous

M:

  • Main : Subsidiary
  • Major : Minor
  • Malign : Praise
  • Meagre : Plentiful
  • Merit : Demerit
  • Miserly : Generous
  • Mortal : Immortal
  • Monopoly : Competition
  • Morbid : Healthy
  • Multiply : Divide
  • Malice : Goodwill

N:

  • Naked : Covered
  • Natural : Artificial
  • Negative : Positive
  • Noble : Ignoble
  • Nothing : Something
  • Notorious : Reputed
  • Numerous : Few

O:

  • Oblivion : Regard
  • Observe : Ignore
  • Offensive : Defensive
  • Optional : Compulsory
  • Oral : Written
  • Outward : Inward

P:

  • Partial : Impartial
  • Particular : General
  • Permanent : Temporary
  • Persuade : Dissuade
  • Physical : Mental
  • Plural : Singular
  • Plenty : Scarcity
  • Polite : Impolite
  • Practical : Impractical
  • Praise : Condemn
  • Precious : Cheap
  • Premium : Discount
  • Pride : Humility
  • Public : Private
  • Pure : Impure

Q:

  • Quack : Expert
  • Qualify : Disqualify

R:

  • Raise : Lower
  • Rampant : Checked
  • Religious : Secular
  • Rear : Front
  • Rare : Ordinary
  • Rash : Cautious, Steady
  • Remote : Near
  • Repulsive : Attractive
  • Risky : Safe
  • Rogue : Gentleman
  • Rude : Courteous
  • Relevant : Irrelevant

S:

  • Scanty : Plentiful
  • Sad : Happy
  • Safety : Danger
  • Savage : Civilised
  • Scarcity : Plenty
  • Secondary : Primary
  • Sober : Excited
  • Sophisticated : Naive
  • Sharp : Blunt
  • Separate : Joint
  • Sick : Healthy
  • Solid : Liquid
  • Stationary : Moving
  • Superior : Inferior
  • Surplus : Deficit
  • Synonym : Antonym
  • Secret : Open

T:

  • Tall : Short
  • Tedious : Simple
  • Tender : Hard, Strong
  • Theory : Practice
  • Thirsty : Extravagant
  • Thrive : Decline
  • Timid : Bold
  • Tight : Loose
  • Together : Alone
  • Transient : Durable, Lasting
  • Transparency : Opaqueness
  • Turmoil : Peace
  • Tolerance : Intolerance

U:

  • Ubiquitous : Nonubiquitous
  • Uncertain : Certain
  • Uniform : Variable
  • Urban : Rural
  • Use : Abuse

V:

  • Vacant : Occupied
  • Vertical : Horizontal
  • Vigilant . : Careless
  • Violent : Nonviolent
  • Virtue : Voice
  • Volatile : Calm
  • Vulgar : Civiised
  • Visible : Invisible

W:

  • Walk : Sit
  • Weak : Strong
  • Wearisome : Refreshing
  • Wife : Husband
  • Worthy : Unworthy
  • Wrong : Right
  • Want : Abundance

Y:

  • Yes : No
  • Yield : Resist
  • Young : Old

Z:

  • Zest : Laziness
  • Zenith : Nadir
  • Zeal : Indifference

Vocabulary Building – CA Foundation BCR Notes

One Word Substitutes:

    • Abbreviation : A shortened form of a word or phrase
    • Accelerate : To increase the speed or to hasten the progress
    • Actuary : One who calculates insurance premium
    • Alien : A person residing in a country of which he is not a citizen
    • Amateur : One who pursues some art or sport as a hobby
    • Ambassador : A diplomat sent by one country to another
    • Ambiguous : A statement that can be interpreted in more than one way
    • Ambivalent : One having opposite feelings
    • Amnesty : General pardon
    • Anarchy : Absence of government
    • Answerable : A person accountable for his action
    • Annual : Happening every year
    • Anonymous : That does not bear the name of the writer
    • Archives : The place where public records are kept
    • Antiseptic : That which counters infection
    • Aquatic : Living in water
    • Atheist : One who does not believe in God
    • Auditor : The person who makes an official verification of accounts
    • Audience : An assembly of hearers
    • Autobiography : The Lifestory of a person written by himself.
    • Autograph : Signature of an important person in his own handwriting
    • Bankrupt : One who cannot pay off his debt
    • Biography : The life history of a person written by someone else
    • Biology : The science which involves study of living beings
    • Bigot : One having narrow and biased religious views
    • Botany : The science of vegetable life
    • Barometer : An instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure
    • Blonde : A beautiful lady of fair complexion and golden hair.
    • Brittle : Prone to be easily broken
    • Bourgeois : A member of the middle class
    • Bureaucracy : Government by the officials
    • Cantonment : Temporary quarters made for military men
    • Catalogue : A list containing names, authors and prices of books
    • Century : One hundred years
    • Collaborator : One who attempts some task jointly with others
    • Colleagues : People working together in the same organisation.
    • Combustible : liable to catch fire easily.
    • Contagious : A disease communicable by contact
    • Congenial : Pertaining to a person by birth
    • Contemporary : People Living in the same age
    • Credulous : One who believes easily whatever is told
    • Cosmopolitan : One who can make himself at home in all countries
    • Deadletter : A letter claimed by no body
    • Democracy : Government by the people
    • Delegation : The process of giving authority to another
    • Depreciation : Decrease in the value of an asset
    • Dictionary : A book containing words and their meanings
    • Drawngame : A game is which neither party wins
    • Ecology : Studs of environment
    • Edible : A thing that is fit to be eaten
    • Egoist : A person who always thinks of himself
    • Eligible : One who is fit to be elected
    • Elucidate : To explain something difficult
    • Embezzlement : Misappropriation of money
    • Emphaslse : To say stress on
    • Equilibrium : A state of perfect balance
    • Eradicate : To root out a disease or evil
    • Explicit : An absolutely clear statement
    • Extempore : A speech made without previous preparation
    • Fanailc : A person having too much enthusiasm or his own religion
    • Facsimile : An exact copy
    • Fastidious : Hard to please
    • Fatal : That which causes death
  • Fatalist : One who believes in fate
  • Fantastic : One who enjoys everything carelessly
  • Fiend : A most cruel and wicked person
  • Fingerpost : A guidepost pointing at the way for a place.
  • Germicide ; Substance that can destroy germs
  • Hades : Lower world beneath the earth.
  • Hearse : Vehicle for carrying dead body.
  • Holdall : A canvas bag to hold bedding, etc.
  • Honeymoon : The hi-st night of newly married couple
  • honorary : A post for which no salarw is paid
  • HospItable : One who entertains his guests
  • Hoyden : A very romping girl
  • Hydra : An imaginan scrpent with many heads
  • Hypnotism : A science of hypnosis by which artificial sleep can be induced on Others
  • Hoyden : A very romping girl
  • Hydra : An imaginan scrpent with many heads
  • Hypnotism : A science of hypnosis by which artificial sleep can be induced on Others
  • Hung : Assembly or Parliament in which no party has go clear majority
  • Illegible : That which cannot be read
  • Illicit : A trade that is prohibited by law
  • Illegal : Contrary to law
  • Illiterate : One who cannot read or write
  • Inapt : A comparison that is out of place
  • Incredible : One that cannot be believed
  • Impractical : A scheme that cannot be put into practice
  • Improbable : That which is not likely to happen
  • Inaudible : A sound that cannot be heard
  • Incomprehensible : A statement that cannot be understood
  • Incorrigible : One who cannot be corrected
  • Inexplicable : That which cannot be explained
  • Infallible : That which never lails
  • InImitable : That which cannot he imitated
  • InsatIable : That which cannot he satisfied
  • Insolvent : One who is unable to pay his debts
  • Invulnerable : That which cannot be hurt
  • Introspection : Looking into unes own thought
  • Invisible : That which cannot be seen
  • Irrelevant : Something which is not applicable
  • Irreparable : A damage or loss that cannot be repaired
  • lirevocable : That which cannot be altered or withdrawn
  • IrrItable : One who becomes angry very casik
  • Immovable : That which cannot be moved
  • Inaccessible : One which cannot be approached
  • Incurable : Thai which cannot be cured
  • Indelible : That which cannot be effaced
  • Indescribable : That which cannot be described
  • IndIspensable : That which cannot be dispensed with
  • Insoluble : That which cannot be dissolved
  • Inseparable : That which cannot be separated
  • Invincible : That which cannot be conquered
  • Insurmountable : That which cannot be overcome
  • Interstate : Dying without hating made a will
  • Jurisdiction : Thai area over which an official has control
  • Kidnap : To carry away a penon forcibly
  • Kindergarten : A school for young children
  • Libra : A place where books are kept for reading and referente
  • Linguist : One who knows many languages
  • Maiden : The first speech made by a person
  • Manuscript : Papers written by hand
  • Materialistic : A person for whom money or gain is the most important Consideration
  • Mercenary : A person working only lot money
  • Misanthrope : A hater of mankind
  • Monopoly : Exclusive possession of the trade in some commodity
  • Migratory : One who moves from one place to another
  • Matinee : A cinema show which is held in the afternoon
  • Manifesto : A written declaration of a political party
  • Manna : Foods offered to the Gods
  • Matrtmonial : Concerning marriage
  • Notorious : One with evil reputation
  • Numismatics : Science of coin.s, medals, etc.
  • Nurse : A lady who attends sick persons
  • Oasis : A shady fertile place in the desert
  • Obsolete : Something which is no longer in use
  • Omnipotent : One who is all powerful
  • Omnipresent : One who is present everywhere
  • Omniscient : One who knows everything
  • Opaque : A body through which light cannot pass.
  • Opportunist : One who makes good use at opportunities
  • Optimist : One who looks at the bright side of things
  • Orthodox : One who holds traditional beliefs
  • Orphan : A child whose parents are dead
  • Panacea : A remedy for all ilks
  • Pedestrian : One who walks on foot
  • Patent : Sole right to make and sell some invention
  • Patrimony : Property inherited from ones father
  • Pessimist : One who looks at the dark side of things
  • Parasite : One who lives on others
  • Perpetuate : To presen’e from extinction
  • Philanthropist : Lover of mankind
  • Pick-pocket : One who steals [rum the pockets of others
  • Popular : One whom people like
  • Postmortem : An examination of a dead body
  • Posthumous : A child born after the death of its father
  • Parables : Stories which build moral
  • Paramour : Illicit lover
  • Precedent : A previous case which serves as an example
  • Psephology : Systematic study of election trends
  • Quisling : One who collaborated with an enemy
  • Quorum : Minimum number of members required to be present for holding a meeting
  • Rape : Intercourse with a lady without her willingness
  • Right : Privilege enjoyed by citizens
  • Red-taplsm : Too much official formality
  • Remuneration : Money paid to someone for the work done
  • Reinstate : To put someone back in a job
  • Retrospection : Looking back on past time
  • Royalty : Money paid to a writer/inventor for the right to use his intellectual property
  • Sanatorium : A place for invalids and convalescents
  • Simultaneous : Taking place at the same time
  • Spokesperson : One who speaks for others
  • Shrew : A perish woman
  • Scholarship : Allowance given to intelligent/poor students
  • Temporary/transient : That which lasts for a short while
  • Transparent : Capable of being seen through
  • Teetotaler : One who totally abstains from alcoholic drinks
  • Tryst : A place for meeting of two lovers
  • Turncoat : A person who changes his party or principles easily
  • Unanimous : A decision/opinion on which all agree
  • Unavoidable : That which cannot be avoided
  • Unintelligible : That which cannot be understood
  • Unique : That has no equal
  • Universal : A rule that is applicable to all
  • Vegetarian : One who does not eat meat
  • Verbose : A style full of words
  • Versatile : One who possesses several talents
  • Veteran : A person who has long experience of any occupation
  • Voluntary : Of one’s own free will
  • Waterproof : Through which water cannot pass
  • Widow : A woman whose husband is dead
  • Widower : A man whose wife is dead
  • Zoo : A place where birds and animalsare kept.

Vocabulary Building – CA Foundation BCR Notes

Common Idioms:

  • To add fuel to the fire (To aggravate an agitation): His provocative speech added fuel to the fire.
  • To beat about the bush (Talking in a roundabout manner) : Do not beat about the bush, come to the point.
  • To beat black and blue (Beating mercilessly): The policeman beat the thief black and blue.
  • To blow one’s own trumpet (Praising oneself) : Ramu is a vain fellow as he always blows his own trumpet.
  • To break the ice (Start speaking) : When there was silence in the committee room, the chairman of the committee broke the ice.
  • To be a bone of contention (Become a subject of dispute): Kashmir has been a bone of contention between India and Pakistan.
  • To be above board (To be honest): The Board of Directors of Infosys Technology is above board.
  • To breathe one’s last (To die): Mahatma Gandhi breathed his last on January 30, 1948.
  • To break the news (To tell bad news): Sohan broke the news of his father’s death to his family.
  • To burn one’s fingers (To invite unexpected trouble) : Deepak burnt his fingers by indulging into horse racing and gambling.
  • To burn the candle at both ends (Wasting energy): Meena ruined her health by burning the candle at both ends.
  • To burn the midnight oil (Working late night): My students are burning the midnight oil to secure high marks in the examination.
  • To call a spade a spade (to speak the truth) : Those who call a spade a spade annoy somebody.
  • To carry the day (To win): The team that plays well in the tournament will carry the day.
  • To come of age (To mature): You will become a voter once you come of age.
  • To create bad blood (To create enmity): Disputes over division of family property often create bad blood among brothers.
  • To cut a sorry figure (To become afraid): Students who are not sincere in their studies have to cut a sorry figure in the examination.
  • To declare null and void (to announce invalid): The Court declared her election as Member of Parliament null and void
  • To die in harness (To die while working): Our former Prime Minister Lai Bahadur Shastri died in harness.
  • To eat humble pie (To face defeat): Prem always boasted of his learning but he had to eat humble pie in the debate.
  • To end in smoke (To fail): All the schemes of Kabir ended in smoke for want of money.
  • To err on the safe side (To choose a safe course of action that may be inaccurate): By investing his savings in bank deposits, Sohan had chosen to err on the safe side.
  • To be at the eleventh hour (At the last moment): We discovered at the eleventh hour that our passports were missing.
  • To be an eyewash (To deceive): The advertisements of fairness creams and lotions are very often an eyewash.
  • To find fault with (To blame): It is his habit to find fault with others.
  • To fish in troubled waters (To extract gain for self from a disturbance): The dog fished in troubled waters when the two cats were fighting on a piece of bread.
  • To follow suit (To defend): The leader left the stage and others followed suit.
  • To get into hot water (To get into trouble): The thief got into hot water by breaking into the house of a police officer.
  • To go to the dogs (To get ruined): A drunkard is bound to go to the dogs.
  • To Give and take policy (A policy of mutual concessions): A give and take policy helps us to maintain good relations with others.
  • To be in good office (To get recommendation) : The good offices of his uncle, helped Satish to get this job.
  • To be a good Samaritan (One who charitably helps others): Mother Teressa was a good Samaritan to the destitutes and the disabled.
  • To have one’s hands full (To be very busy): His hands are full since he launched this cement factory.
  • To have too many irons in fire (To be overburdened with work) : Those who have too many irons in the fire cannot maintain a balance in their life.
  • To have at one’s finger ends (To remember well): Reena has worked so hard for the forthcoming examinations that she has her lessons at her finger ends.
  • To have an axe of one’s own to grind (To serve one’s own interest) : Workers are supporting the management’s decision because they have an axe of their own to grind.
  • To keep with the Jones (To imitate one’s friends and neighbours): In order to keep with the Jones, Ahshan is squandering his hard earned money.
  • To keep abreast of (To remain informed): I keep myself abreast of latest developments in management literature.
  • To keep at arm’s length (To keep distance): Good people always keep bad people at an arm’s length.
  • To keep in the dark (Not to disclose) : He kept his friends and relatives in the dark about his love marriage.
  • To kill two birds with one stone (Double benefit): Those who deposit money in banks kill two birds with one stone because their money remains safe and they also earn interest.
  • To leave no stone unturned (To make full efforts) : Dhirubhai Ambani left no stone unturned to become a business magnate.
  • To lose heart (To lose courage): Those who do not lose heart in difficulties will ultimately succeed.
  • To take lion’s share (To get the largest share): Medical expenses take away the lion’s share of the old man’s earnings.’
  • To make amends (To correct one’s mistake): By submitting a written apology to his boss, Sahil has made amends for abusing the boss.
  • To make both ends meet (To lead a very poor life) : Ramu’s salary is so small that he can hardly make both ends meet.
  • To make good the loss (To compensate the loss): Suraj has made good the loss to his business which was caused by the fraud of his accountant.
  • To mind one’s own business (To concentrate on one’s work): The manager asked his secretary not to interfere in his work and to mind her own business.
  • To nip in the bud (To destroy in the beginning): If you do not nip the evil in the bud it will overcome you in the end.
  • To play second fiddle (To take a subordinate role): Many countries play second fiddle to the United States.
  • To pay back in the same coin (Tit for tat): When her neighbour rebuked Neena, she paid her back in the same coin.
  • To pocket an insult (To bear insult): Sita is a brave girl and never pockets insult from her mother- in-law.
  • To pour oil on troubled water (To smoothen passions): Whenever there is a dispute between nations, the UNO tries to pour oil on troubled waters.
  • To rest on one’s laurels (To remain satisfied with one’s achievements) : Those who rest on their laurels do not make further progress.
  • To rise to the occasion (To prepare for the occasion) : Ambani brothers rose to the occasion and did not let their business empire suffer due to the death of their father.
  • To rain cats and dogs (To rain heavily): I could not attend the meeting as it was raining cats and dogs.
  • To set one’s house in order (To manage one’s own affairs) : One who cannot set his own house in order cannot help others.
  • To speak volumes (To have adequate evidence): The success of Bharti Enterprises speaks volumes for the capabilities of Sunil Bharti Mittal.
  • To be at large (To free) : The terrorists who burnt the train are still at large.
  • To be at one’s back and call (To follow somebody): My secretary is at my back and call.
  • To be at sixes and sevens (Scattered) : Books in this bookstore are lying at sixes and sevens.
  • To be caught red-handed : The policeman caught the pickpocket red handed while picking a pocket.
  • To be hand and glove with (To be friends): Reeta and Geeta are hand and glove with each other.
  • To be out of the mark (Not related to the subject matter): Her remark in the group discussion was wide of the mark.
  • To be in a fix (Perplexed): The tourist is in a fix and does not know what to do.
  • To be in full swing : The book fair was in full swing.
  • To be in the good books of (Being favourite of someone) : Ram is in the good books of his boss.
  • To be out of pocket (Having to money): The robbers robbed all the passengers in the bus and left them out of pocket.
  • A black sheep (unfaithful): There are many black sheeps in this team.
  • A child’s play (An easy task): To pass the IIT-JEE examination is not a child’s play.
  • To steel a march (To gain an advantage over others): Many information technology firms in India have stolen a march over Patni Computers by expanding their domestic and overseas operations.
  • To steer clear of (To avoid): The Principal likes to steer clear of problems by remaining neutral.
  • A storm in a tea cup (A great fuss about a trifle) : The hue and cry raised by the passenger about his missing ticket turned out to be a storm in a tea cup.
  • A sheet anchor (The most reliable support) : The faculty in our college is our sheet anchor.
  • To see eye to eye with (To agree) : India and Pakistan do not see eye to eye with each other on Kashmir.
  • To take offence (To get offended): The audience took offence at her remarks on religion.
  • To take to task (To scold): The supervisor took the factory workers to task for not completing the work.
  • To take to one’s heels (To run away quietly): The thief took to his heels as he saw the policeman.
  • To take heart (To have courage): The teacher asked the failing students to take heart and try again.
  • To take cue (To get a hint) : Reeta took a cue from the speaker’s remarks and made her point.
  • To take to heart (To lose heart): She committed suicide because she took her to heart her failure in the examination.
  • To take a leap in the park (To take a risky step carelessly): Sohan took a leaf in the dark by setting up an export house without adequate study of the markets abroad.
  • To take the bull by the horns (To tackle a problem with courage): The Government of India is strong enough
  • To take the bull by the horns. It will solve the problem of poverty.
  • To turn the tables (To reverse somebody’s position): The infiltrators were trying to sneak into our country,
  • but the Border Security Force turned the tables.
  • To turn a deaf ear to (To ignore): The students turned a deaf ear to the advice of their teacher.
  • To turn one’s head (To become proudy): The lottery prize of two crores have turned his head.
  • To weather the storm (To come out of a crisis successfully): Globalisation posed a threat to Indian industry. But with determination and hard work Indian companies have weathered die storm.
  • For good (for all times) : Khanna left India for good.
  • In a body (Together): The students went to the Principal in a body.
  • Ups and downs (Prosperity and adversity): I have seen many ups and downs in my life.
  • Up to the mark (Reaching a set standard) : After training for two years, the performance of new recruits came upto the mark.
  • A white elephant (A costly comfort) : The Mercedes car which he bought last year has become a white elephant.
  • A wild goose chase (A foolish venture): It has been a wild goose chase for Ramlal who is trying to reform his habitually drunkard son.
  • Ins and outs (Full details): She knows all the ins and outs of mathematics.
  • At the eleventh hour (At the last moment) : The passengers reached the railway station at the eleventh hour and boarded the moving train.
  • All and sundry : All and sundry are welcome to the exhibition.
  • All in all: The chairman is all in all in this company.
  • An apple of discord (The root of conflict): Family property is the apple of discord between the two brothers.
  • A bed of roses : Life is not a bed of roses but a bed of thorns.
  • For want of : Crops often fail in this state for want of rains.
  • Bad blood (active enmity): Kashmir has created bad blood between India and Pakistan.
  • Crocodile tears (faking): She shed crocodile tears over the death of her neighbour.
  • Bag and baggage : Deepak turned out his dishonest servant bag and baggage.
  • Bread and butter (Source of earning) : For an author, writing is his bread and butter.
  • By hook or by crook (In any way): He wants to settle abroad by hook or by crook.
  • By leaps and bounds (Fast): Our country is progressing by leaps and bounds.
  • First and foremost: The first and foremost duty of a boy is to serve his parents.
  • Kith and kin (Relatives): Shyam invited his kith and kin on his marriage.
  • Part and parcel (Essential part): He treats his servant as a part and parcel of his family.
  • Spick and span : Everything in my house is spick and span.
  • Sum and substance (The essence): Write the sum and substance of this story.
  • To and fro : Every morning I walk to and fro in my garden.
  • Through and through (Completely): It was raining heavily and the students got drenched through and through by the time they reached the school.
  • A flying visit (A short visit): The Prime Minister paid a flying visit to the flooded town.
  • A hair breadth escape : The passengers had a hair breadth escape when the tyre of the plane burnt on the terminal.
  • A laughing stock (Target of laughter): Due to her foolish habits, Saira has become a laughing stock of her class.
  • A maiden speech (First speech): Many people have to cut a sorry figure in their maiden speech. An open
  • secret: It is an open secret that Indian firms are becoming global.
  • A past master (Expert): Puneet is a past master in cutting jokes.
  • A red letter day : The 15th August is a red letter day in the history of India.
  • A short cut: There is no shortcut to success.
  • A turn coat: Never depend on a turncoat.
  • A man of letters (Scholar): Our first President S. Radhakrishnan was a man of letters.
  • In black and white : The witness gave his statement in black and white.
  • Through thick and thin (In any situation): A true friend will stand by you through thick and thin.
  • At a stretch (Continuously): I can study five hours at a stretch.
  • With open arms : The victorious team was received with open arms.
  • At the eleventh hour (At the last moment) : The ambulance arrived at the site of the accident at the eleventh hour.
  • In the long run : Courtesy pays in the long run.
  • In spite of : Geeta fasted in spite of hard work.

Summary :

  • Derivatives : Words derived from the same root word.
  • Prefixes : Syllable put before a word to qualify its meaning.
  • Suffix : Syllable put after a word to qualify its meaning
  • Synonyms : Words having the same meaning.
  • Antonyms : Words having reverse meaning.

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