# Seating Arrangements – CA Foundation Logical Reasoning Questions

These Seating Arrangements – CA Foundation Logical Reasoning Questions are designed strictly as per the latest syllabus and exam pattern.

## Seating Arrangements – CA Foundation Logical Reasoning Questions

Definition :

The process of making an arrangement of a group of persons to sit according to a prefixed (pre-planned) manner is called Seating Arrangement. In seating arrangement Questions, some conditions are given & on the basis of those conditions, students are required to arrange those things.

Pattern or Types of Seating Arrangements:-

1. Linear Arrangement;
2. Circular Arrangement;
3. Polygon Arrangement.

Some General instructions to solve seating arrangement questions:

1. Review all informations given in the question.
2. Recognise ‘definite information’; ‘comparative information’ and ‘negative information’.
(a) “Person A is sitting on the left end of the bench” is a definite information.
(b) “Person B is sitting immediate right to C” is an example of Comparative information.
(c) “Person C is not sitting on the immediate right of D” is an example of negative information.
3.  A negative information does not tell us anything definitely but gives an idea to eliminate a possibility.

Golden Rules

Rule 1: Always start the arrangement with 100% fixed i.e. confirmed i.e. definite information.

Example: There are 8 persons A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H are sitting around a round table. A is sitting 3rd to the right of B, C is sitting opposite to D who is 3rd left to the person opposite to A .
…… so on. If the question is like this then students should start with A is sitting 3rd to the right of B. Because this is only the definite or confirmed information.

Note: If nothing is mentioned in the question regarding the direction i.e. they are facing towards centre or facing away from centre then by default we should take it as facing towards centre.

Rule 2: For a closed figure (circle, square, rectangle, octagon etc..,) arrangement, Only persons sit opposite to each other when there are even number of members.

In a given arrangement if four persons are given as in first diagram then two persons can be accommodated exactly opposite to each other but not in case of figure (ii)

Rule 3: “And” verses “Who”
In a given question if it is given as “In a circular arrangement, there are four persons A, B, C, D sitting in the following way. A is right of B who is left of C”

In this case Who refers to B: Thus A is placed right to B and B is placed left to C.

In a circular arrangement, there are four persons A, B, C, D sits in the following way. A is right of B and is left of C

In this case And refers to A: Thus A is placed left to C as well as right to B.

Rule 4: Left vs Immediate left
Either in circular arrangement or in linear arrangement unless it is mentioned in the question we cannot assume left or an immediate left.

Example: There are 5 persons namely A, P, X, Y, Z standing in a row. No one sits left to the vowel.

Only 3 persons are to the right of X. X sits immediate left of Y and left to Z. Z does not sit at extreme ends.

In the Above arrangement, X is immediate left to Y, whereas X is left to Z. No matter how many places far from Z but it is left to Z.

Rule 5: Identifying the left and right in a given arrangement For Circular / closed figure:

• Whenever it is given towards right go for anti-clockwise direction.
• Whenever it is given towards left go for clockwise rotation.

These are the important rules, a student should be aware of while solving seating arrangement problems. In a competitive exam speed is required, but should not be hurry.

Example 1.
A, P, R, X, S and Z are sitting in a row. S and Z are in the centre. A and P are at the ends.
R is sitting to the left of A. Who is to the right of P ?
(a) A
(b) X
(c) S
(d) Z
Solution:
Option (b)
The seating arrangement is as follows:

Therefore, right of P is X.

Example 2.
A, B, C, D and E are sitting on a bench. A is sitting next to B, C is sitting next to D, D is not sitting with E who is on the left end of the bench. C is on the second position from the right. A is to the right of B and E. A and C are sitting together. In which position A is sitting ?
(a) Between B and D
(b) Between B and C
(c) Between E and D
(d) Between C and E
Solution:
Option (b)

Therefore, A is sitting in between B and C

Example 3.
There are four children P ,Q, R, S sitting in a row. P occupies seat next to Q but not next to R. If R is not sitting next to S ? Who is occupying seat next to adjacent to S.
(a) Q
(b) P
(c) P and Q
(d) None
Solution:
(b) is correct.
Two possible arrangements can be : R, Q, P, S or S, P, Q, R
Clearly, only P is sitting adjacent to S.

Example 4.
8 leaders P, Q, R, S, T, U, V and W are sitting on a bench facing towards North.
(i) T is fourth to the left of P
(ii) S is fourth to the right of W
(iii) U and R are not sitting at the ends, but they are neighbours of T and Q respectively.
(iv) P is next to the right of W and but left of Q.
Who are sitting at the extreme ends ?
(a) T&S
(b) P&Q
(c) U&R
(d) None
Solution:
(a) is correct.
(i) T is fourth to the left of P ⇒ T***P
(ii) S is fourth to the right of W ⇒ W***S
(iii) U and R are neighbours of T and Q respectively ⇒ UT or TU & RQ or QR
(iv) P is next to the right of W and but left of Q ⇒ WPQ
Combining (i), (ii), (iv) & (iii) ; we get UT**WPQRS or TU*WPQRS
Since, U and R are not sitting at the ends ⇒ TU* WPQRS is right.
Rest person is V. So V will sit at rest place. Hence, the arrangement is TUVWPQRS.
Hence, T and S are sitting at the extreme ends.

Two Rows Sequence or Parallel Seating Arrangement.

Let A, B , C, D, E, F are 6 students seating in two rows for Group Discussion just opposite to each other.

In the above diagram, it is clear that:

1. A & D are opposite to each other.
2. Also B & E are opposite to each other.
3. C & F are also sitting opposite to each other.
4. A and F are sitting diagonally opposite to each other.
5. C and D are also sitting diagonally opposite to each other.
6. Students A, B, C are sitting Southward while D, E, F Northward.
7. Toward North facing yours right is right side & yours left is left side in the diagram. Toward South facing, it is just opposite as seen in the diagram.

Example 5.
Directions: Read the following informations carefully to answer these questions: [MAT 2005]
(i) Six flats on a floor in two rows facing North and South are allotted to P, Q, R, S, T and U.
(ii) Q gets a North facing flat and is not next to S.
(iii) S and U get diagonally opposite flats.
(iv) R, next to U, gets a South facing flat and T gets a North facing flat.

Question 1.
The flats of which of the other pairs than SU, are diagonally opposite to each other ?
(a) QP
(b) PT
(c) QR
(d) TS

Question 2.
Which of the following combinations gets South facing flats ?
(a) UPT
(b) URP
(c) QTS
Solution:
From Question , the arrangement should be

Q 1. (a) is correct.
Q 2. (b) is correct.

Example 6.
A, B, C, D, E and F are sitting around a round table. A is between E and F, E is opposite to D, and C is not in either of the neighbouring seats of E. Who is opposite to B ?
(a) C
(b) D
(c) F
(d) None of these
Solution:
(c)

In each arrangement F is opposite to B.

Example 7.
Six persons A, B, C, D, E and F are standing in a circle. B is between D and between E and C. F is to the right of D. Who is between A and F ? [ IITTM 2005 ]
(a) B
(b) C
(c) D
(d) E
Solution:
(d)

Previous Year Exam Questions

Question 1.
Five boys A, B, C, D and E are sitting in a row. A is to the right of B, and E is to the left of B but to the right of C. A is to the left of D. Who is second from the left end ? [1 Mark, May 2018]
(a) D
(b) A
(c) E
(d) B
Solution:
(c)

Clearly E is the second from the left end.

Question 2.
Five senior citizens are living in a Multi-Storeyed building. Mr. Manu lives in a flat above Mr. Ashokan, Mr. Lokesh in a flat below Mr. Gaurav, Mr. Ashokan lives in a flat below Mr. Gaurav and Mr. Rakesh lives in a flat below Mr. Lokesh. Who lives in the top most flat ? [1 Mark, May 2018]
(a) Mr. Lokesh
(b) Mr. Gaurav
(c) Mr. Manu
(d) Mr. Rakesh
Solution:
(c)

Clearly Mr. Manu lives in the top most flat.

Question 3.
Six children A, B, C, D, E and F are standing in a row. B is between F and D. E is between A and C. A does not stand next to F or D. C does not stand next to D. F is between which of the following pairs of children? [1 Mark, May 2018]
(a) B and E
(b) B and C
(c) B and D
(d) B and A
Solution:
(b)

F is between B & C.

Question 4.
Five children are sitting in a row. S is sitting next to P but not T. K is sitting next to R who is sitting on the extreme left and T is not sitting next to K. Who is/are adjacent to S. [1 Mark, May 2018]
(a) K + P
(b) R + P
(c) Only P
(d) P and T.
Solution:
(d)

Question 5.
Five boys A, B, C, D and E are sitting in a row. A is to the right of B and E is to the left of B but to the right of C. A is to the left of D. Who is second from the left end ? [1 Mark, May 2018]
(a) D
(b) A
(c) E
(d) B
Solution:

Clearly E is second from the left end.

Question 6.
Eight persons A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H are sitting in a line. E sits second right to D. H sits fourth left to D. C and F are immediate neighbours, but C is not immediate neighbour of A. G is not neighbour of E. Only two persons sit between A and E. The persons on left end and right end respectively are: [1 Mark, Nov. 2018]
(a) G and E
(b) B and E
(c) H and E
(d) G and B
Solution:
(a);
(i) D * E
(ii) H***D
(iii) A* CF or FC*A
(iv) G * E or E *G
(v) A**E orE**A
So,

Clearly G is on the left end & E on the right end.

Question 7.
Six children A, B, C, D, E and F are sitting in a row. B is between F and D. E between A and C. However, A does not sit next to F or D. C does not sit next to D. Then, F is sitting between …& …? [1 Mark, Nov. 2018]
(a) B and C
(b) E and C
(c) B and D
(d) None
Solution:
(a)
(i) FBD
(ii) AEC
Clearly

Clearly F is siting between B and C.

Question 8.
Five students A, B, C, D and E are standing in a row. D is on the right of E, B is on the left of E but on the right of A. D is next to C on his left. The student in middle is …….. [1 Mark, Nov. 2018]
(a) B
(b) E
(c) C
(d) A
Solution:
(b)
Clearly

Hence student E is in the middle of these arrangement.

Question 9.
Four girls are seated for a photograph. Shikha is left of Reena. Manju is to the right of Reena. Reeta is between Reena and Manju. Who is the second from left in photograph ? [1 Mark, June 2019]
(a) Reena
(b) Manju
(c) Reeta
(d) Shikha
Solution:
(c)

The second from left in photograph is Reena.

Question 10.
In a straight line there are six persons sitting in a row. B is between F and D. E is between A and C. A does not stand next to F or D, C does not stand next to D. F is between which of the following persons ? [1 Mark, June 2019]
(a) B and E
(b) B and C
(c) B and D
(d) B and A
Solution:
(b)
(i) FBD or DBF
(ii) AEC or CEA

Question 11.
5 Children are sitting in a row. S is sitting next to P but not T. K is sitting next to R. K is not sitting on extreme end. T is not sitting next to K. Who are sitting adjacent S. [1 Mark, June 2019]
(a) K & P
(b) R & P
(c) Only P
(d) P & T
Solution:
(a)
(i) T*SP or PS*T
(ii) RK
(iii) T*K or K*T

Question 12.
Five boys A, B, C, D, E are sitting in a row. A is to the right of B and E is to the left of B but to the right of C. A is to the left of D. Who is second from the left end ? [1 Mark, June 2019]
(a) D
(b) A
(c) E
(d) B
Solution:
(c)