Report Writing – CA Foundation BCR Notes

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Report Writing – BCR Notes CA Foundation

Reports as a means of written communication are used in all types of organisations. Branch managers send weekly or monthly performance reports to the head office. A company secretary prepares the Annual Report for presentation at the Annual General Meeting of the company.

Meaning And Nature of A Report:
A report may be defined as a formal or official document describing a state of affairs or what has happened. It contains a detailed description of a problem or a situation, findings of an investigation, recommendations or action taken. It generally includes conclusions and suggestions for future course of action. A report is expected to be written in an informative and clear manner often drawing conclusions, making recommendations and suggesting courses of action.

The purpose of such reports is usually to bring information to the attention of senior management authorities so that any decision regarding the matters under review can be taken by them with full knowledge of the background, facts and circumstances. Reports can also be requests for action, or they can make suggestions to initiate action.

A report is a written statement or document stating what has happened or describing the state of affairs. In business there are many occasions when some form of “report” is required. A report is a detailed examination of a situation or problem, of action taken, or of the findings of an investigation. It is written in a clear, informative way, often drawing conclusions, making recommendations and suggesting course of action.

Report Writing – CA Foundation BCR Notes

The main features of a report are as follows:
→ A report is a statement containing some information or an account of something.

→ It is an orderly presentation of facts about some activity, event or programme. In other words, a report is an organised and factual account of work done by a person/group or activities of an organisation. A report differs from the routine and casual exchange of information that takes place daily in business.

→ A report is an objective and unbiased presentation of facts. It is designed to present the truth irrespective of the consequences.

→ A report is written for a specific audience.

→ It contains conclusions drawn by the writer together with the procedure followed for collection and interpretation of data.

→ A report often includes recommendations.

→ A report is written for some specific purpose.

→ A report is submitted by a lower authority to a higher authority.

→ A business report serves the following purposes:

  • It presents factual information to management.
  • It contains results of investigation and analysis for future reference.
  • It provides useful information to shareholders, creditors, general public and other stakeholders.
  • It offers recommendations for future course of action.

Distinction Between Project And Report:

Basis of Distinction Project Report
1. Nature It is not official communication It is an official communication
2. Time Orientation It concerns the future It concerns the past
3. Investment It involves investment of money It may not involve investment of money
4. Sequence It involves a time bound sequence of activities a beginning and an end It may not involve a time bound sequence of activities
5. Purpose To complete a major task To present findings and recommendation.

Report Writing – CA Foundation BCR Notes

Importance of Report Writing:
In business, there are several occasions when some type of report is required. Business reports play a very significant role in the management of modern business. Several types of reports have to be prepared and presented on different aspects of business. Reporting is the backbone of communication. The quality of business decisions depends on the quality of information with managers. Managers are away from the scene of action and rely upon the reports sent by their subordinates. A newspaper editor runs his newspaper on the basis of reports sent by his correspondents.

In business reporting is a continuous activity. Executives need objective and timely information about the internal working and external environment of business for taking business decisions, for evaluating progress and for planning the future. A sales manager depends on reports from branch offices.

A branch manager operates on the basis of reports from field sales force. A factory manager receives reports of output and quality from his subordinates. Top managers decide expansion and diversification programmes on the basis of reports from departmental heads and market experts.

Writing reports provides training in planned and orderly procedures. It reveals gaps in reasoning, highlights woolly thinking and identifies faults in presentation. Report writing develops the power of judgment, discrimination, organisation of ideas, presentation of details and communication. Thus, there is an intrinsic value in report writing. Universities and institutes are offering professional programmes introducing courses in report writing. Progressive organisations also conduct programmes in report writing for their employees.

Thus, reports serve the following functions:

  • Reports provide valuable information for planning and decision-making.
  • Reports help to measure employee performance and thereby assist in managerial control.
  • Reports aim to analysing the impact of changing business conditions on the performance and growth of an enterprise. With such analysis, management can develop measures to combat the changes. Reports facilitate coordination.
  • Reports are a means of keeping in touch, and maintaining contacts with customers, share-holders, creditors and the Government.

Reports are vital for large organisations particularly when the work involved is technical and complex. Engineers and technicians are often required to write technical reports. While writing such reports attention should be paid to formal, courtesies to be observed, correct English (spellings, punctuations, word meanings, vocabulary, idiomatic expression, etc.). Technical writing skill can be improved through practice.

Report Writing – CA Foundation BCR Notes

Types of Reports:
Reports can be classified into several categories :
On the basis of communication media, reports can be oral or written.
1. Oral Reports:
An oral report is a face-to-face communication of an impression or observation. It is comparatively informal and time saving. It is simple and easy to present. But the receiver has to listen to every word of it. It tends to be vague and provides no record for future reference.
Report Writing – CA Foundation BCR Notes IMG 1

2. Written Reports:
A written report is relatively more accurate and precise. It tends to be more formal and can be referred to again and again. A written report provides a permanent record and cannot be denied at any time. It can change hands without any danger of distortion during transmission. For example, a divisional manager may write a report giving his assessment of the working of various branches he visits for the information of the top management of the bank. On the basis of the format and procedures adopted, reports may be informal or formal.

3. Informal Reports:
An informal report is usually in the form of person-to-person communication. It may range from a few lines to several pages of detailed information. An informal report is often written in the form of a letter or a memorandum. Informal reports do not comply with any law or specified procedure.

They are prepared according to the convenience and needs of the organisation. They do not have a uniform structure. Informal reports may be prepared to get detailed information, to investigate a given situation, to report on an event, to comment on the work progress or to suggest a course of action. These reports are short and use simple style.

4. Formal Reports:
A formal report is presented in a prescribed form. It is prepared in accordance with an established law or procedure and is submitted to the prescribed authority. A report submitted by a commission or committee appointed by the Government is a formal report. The report submitted by the Board of Directors of a company to its shareholders is also a formal report.

The main features of a formal report are as follows:

  • It is written by an individual or a committee which was assigned a specific object.
  • It is written to assist higher authorities in taking an important decision.
  • It contains specific information, findings and recommendations.
  • It is well-planned and properly organised.
  • It is generally submitted along with a transmittal letter which introduces the report.
  • It is not presented in a letter or memorandum form. Formal reports can be statutory or non-statutory.

5. Statutory Reports:
Reports prepared and presented according to the form and procedure laid down by law are called statutory reports.’Reports submitted at the statutory meeting of shareholders, Directors’ report to the Annual General Meeting, Auditors’ Report are examples of statutory reports. These are prepared as per the requirements of the Companies Act, 1956.

6. Non-statutory Reports:
Formal reports which are not required under any law but which are prepared to help the management in formulating policies and in taking important decisions are called non-statutory reports. For example, every branch of a company may be asked to submit a monthly report on sales. On the basis of frequency of issue, there can be routine reports and special reports.

7. Routine Reports:
These reports are prepared and presented in the usual routine of business. For example, branch managers of banks submit regular reports to the Head Office on the quantum of business transacted during the period. Progress reports, inventory reports, confidential reports on employees are examples of routine reports. Such reports contain a mere statement of facts without an opinion or recommendation.

From these reports the concerned authority can judge the progress of work. Since these reports are presented at prescribed intervals, these are also called periodic reports. They may be submitted annually, semi-annually, quarterly, monthly, fortnightly, weekly or even daily. Routine reports are usually written on the prescribed proforma.

8. Special Reports:
A special report is prepared and presented in connection with specific situations or occasions. These deal with non-recurrent problems or issues. A report on the desirability of opening a new branch, a report on the unrest among staff in a particular branch, a report suggesting the restructuring of the bank’s operations, laboratory report are examples of special reports. On the basis of function, a report can be either informational or interpretative.

9. Informational Reports:
An informational report presents the data collected or facts observed in an organised form. It does not contain analysis, conclusions or recommendations. It presents the situation as it is and not as it should be. For example, a report containing only the data on deposits and advances of branches during the year is an informational report.

Informational reports usually bring information to the attention of senior management/ authorities/stakeholders so that any decision regarding the matters under review can be taken by them with full knowledge of the background, facts and circumstances. The Annual Report prepared by the company secretary or administrator for presentation at the Annual General Meeting of the shareholders is an example of information report.

10. Interpretative or Recommendary Reports:
Such a report not only contains facts but also interpretation or evaluation of data. It includes the report’s conclusions and also contains recommendations for action. In the above example, if reasons for unsatisfactory position of deposits and advances and suggestions for improvement in future are added, the report will become interpretative. Reports are meant to convince the audience that the conclusions and recommendations developed are valid. For example technical reports.

It may be pointed out that both informational and interpretative reports are based on analysis or investigation of the problem or survey or research. On the basis of the nature of the subject dealt with, there can be fact-finding report, problem-determining report or technical report. In a fact-finding report only the data are presented but in a problem-determining report the causes of the problem are given. A technical report presents data on a specialised subject.

On the basis of number of persons involved, there can be reports by individuals, and reports by committees. Reports concerning the work of one person/branch/ department are usually submitted by individuals. When the subject or problem relates to more than one department, a committee may be formed to draft the report.

Report Writing – CA Foundation BCR Notes

Characteristics of A Good Report:
A good report must satisfy the following requirements :
1. Simplicity:
A good report must be written in a simple and lucid language. It must be easy to read and understand as otherwise it would be of little utility. Literary style is unnecessary for reports and ease of presentation is vital.

A satisfactory writing style can be developed after practising report writing and by studying the reports of other writers. Any statistical matter, photographs, tabulated materials should be attached on separate sheets and referred to in the report. Information should be arranged either in logical sequence or in chronological depending on the subject matter.

2. Clarity:
A good report contains a proper arrangement of facts. It has a clear purpose or, clearly defined problems, definite sources of data and clear findings and recommendations. It should be divided into short paragraphs and must have a clear title. Short paragraphs facilitate comprehension and make the report look attractive. Proper headings and sub- headings should be used to give the report an appearance of not being overcrowded.

3. Accuracy:
A good report contains accurate and unbiased information. Only accurate reports can lead to correct decisions and right actions. A report should be accurate both in terms of facts and grammar.

4. Precision:
Conciseness and coherence are essential characteristics of a good report. There should be no ambiguity about recommendations contained in a report. Precision makes a report useful and a valuable means of communication. Apt words should be used and salient points may be highlighted.

5. Completeness:
A good report must be complete in all respects. It must contain all the required facts and conclusions. Generally, it should specify the purpose, facts, conclusions and recommendations.

6. Relevance and Reliability:
The contents of a report must be relevant to the purpose for which it is prepared. Irrelevant facts make a report misleading, obscure and cumbersome. The report must be reliable.

7. Cross-reference:
Whenever necessary, cross referencing should be done in a report. Cross referencing means making a mention at one place in the report about some other points of the report. For example, against every point in the summary the page number of the report where the details against that point are given may be mentioned.

Cross- referencing helps to save time and space and facilitates the task of the persons who are to read and use the report. A report should be organised properly, keep all parts related and use good transition, appropriate graphic aids should be used.

8. Objectivity:
There should be objectivity in investigation, collection of data and writing of reports. There should be no bias at any stage. Recommendations made in a report must be impartial and free from prejudice. There should be logically derived conclusions from investigations and analysis. Facts must be separated from emotions.

9. Brevity:
A good report should be brief without being incomplete. It should include every significant detail yet be brief. Brevity and precision are interrelated but brevity should not be at the cost of clarity and completeness.

10. Reader-oriented:
While preparing a report the person who is to read and use it should be kept in mind. For example, a report meant for a specialist is not appropriate for a layman. The main purpose of a report is the presentation of facts. Therefore, it should be designed to attract the attention of the reader and convey,to him the message effectively. Use of precise and clear language can make the report readable.

11. Consistency:
A good report must be consistent with the purpose of writing it. Different stages in report preparation like enquiry, collection of facts, analysis and interpretation and recommendations should flow towards the main theme.

12. Logical Contents:
The contents of a report must be arranged in a logical order. Suitable headings and sub-headings must be used and these should be self-explanatory.

13. Timeliness:
A report must be submitted at the right time. Any delay in the submission of reports makes report writing a futile exercise.

14. Appearance:
The format, layout and cover of a good report must be pleasing and eye catching. The report must be elegant.

15. Definite Authority:
The report should be addressed to a specific authority.

Report Writing – CA Foundation BCR Notes

Preparing A Report:
The process of preparing a report consists of the following stages :
Stage 1 – Collect the Material
Collect all the relevant materials, notes, documents, etc.

Stage 2 – Plan the Report

  • Define the purpose of your report to whom it is to be submitted and how will it be used?
  • Determine the information it should contain – contents
  • Arrange the information in a logical order – layout
  • Prepare an outline of the report, making rough notes
  • Decide where illustrations and diagrams are required – style

Stage 3 – Draft the Report

  • Write the introduction-the purpose, the heading and the summary.
  • Write the body of the report.
  • Write the conclusions and recommendations.
  • Summarise the report

Stage 4 – Edit the Report

  • Examine the draft-will it serve the purpose.
  • Check your grammar, spelling, punctuations, style, etc.
  • Check your illustrations.

Main Parts of a Report:

  • Title or title page-it should be short and clear
  • Preface or Foreword and Acknowledgements
  • Terms of reference indicating why the report is submitted
  • Executive Summary or Abstract
  • Table of Contents and List of Illustrations
  • Introduction
  • Analysis
  • Descriptions
  • Explanations
  • Conclusions and Recommendations
  • Appendix – Support Materials

A letter of transmittal may accompany.

Report Writing – CA Foundation BCR Notes

Structure of A report:
A report contains three main parts – introduction, the main body and the conclusion. There is no limitations for the length to be maintained in the three sections. The length depends upon the nature and objectives of the report.

In the introduction section, the nature and importance of the subject are mentioned. It must focus on the total subject in brief so that the reader can anticipate what is to follow. Letter of authorisation is also given in this part. The main body contains the entire details and is therefore more elaborate. This section analyses the problems, gives details, collating the collected information.

The main body is the central or core part of the report. Therefore, it must present the ethos of the entire text. The conclusion or closing part of the report must touch upon the subject and highlight the suggested course of action.

Appendix and bibliography are given as a supplement to the report. Appendix lists the material used. Bibliography contains the references.
→ Timing : Promptness in preparation and submitting is of paramount importance. If there is any delay or time lag between occurrence and reporting the information communicated may be futile because serious action may not be taken in time.

→ Form : Every report should have title suggesting the subject-matter. In big organisations, various coloured forms are used for different reports.

→ Accuracy : The report must be as far as possible accurate. Accuracy is one of the essential requirements because decisions are based on the reports. Any inaccurate information furnished may produce wrong decisions and the organization will have to bear the cost.

→ Contents : Information must not be superficial and superfluous. It must be adequate, clear, brief and only what is needed. Unnecessary dumping of insignificant and unintelligible data should be avoided.

→ Cost : Preparation and presentation of reports involve cost. While designing the system of reporting the costs associated with the preparation and presentation of reports must be compared with the benefits resulting therefrom. Such comparison is desirable to ensure efficiency in reporting.

Principles of Drafting A Report:
The following principles are helpful in drafting a useful report:
1. Principle of Purpose: The report must have a specific and sound purpose. A careful statement of the purpose is necessary for drafting an effective report. Clear statement of purpose is necessary because reports form the basis for decision-making and they constitute a record for future reference.

2. Principle of Clarity : A report should be drafted in simple language. In case unknown terms are used they should be properly defined to avoid any confusion. Complicated language fails to convey the message clearly.

3. Principle of Organisation : A report should be well planned and well organised. It should be divided properly into headings and sub-headings. The organisational set up of a report is given in the above table.

4. Principle of Brevity: The report should be brief because it is difficult to analyse long reports. Such reports are costly to prepare. Major points may be ignored due to irrelevant details.

5. Principle of Cost: A report should not cost more than its benefits otherwise if would not be worth while to prepare a report.

6. Principle of Scheduling : The time interval between the collection of data and writing the report should not be long. Otherwise the report may become obsolete and useless.

Principles of Drafting A Report:
1. Principle of Purpose: Every report must have a specific and sound purpose. A clear statement of the purpose helps in the preparation and use of the report.

2. Principle of Organisation : The elements of a report should be properly planned and well- organised in the right sequence.

3. Principle of Clarity : A report should be written in a simple language.

4. Principle of Brevity : The report should be brief because, short reports are easy to prepare and analyse, cost less and highlight the relevant points.

5. Principle of Scheduling: Reports should be scheduled in such a way that they can be prepared without undue burden on the staff and with sufficient time for their preparation. However, too long a time interval between collection of data and presentation of the report may render the report obsolete and useless.

6. Principle of Cost: The cost of a report should always be less than the benefit.

Report Writing – CA Foundation BCR Notes

Styles of Reports:
A report may be drafted in the following two styles :
1. Letter Style Report:
In this style, a report is written like a letter on the letter-head of the company. It is divided into paragraphs and signed at the end. Such a report is short and less detailed. A letter-style report, covers mainly one topic, which is often unsolicited and which is used to make requests, pass necessary information, suggest actions, or bring some matter to the attention of others.

A letter style report is short and is written in the form of a letter. It is used mainly to present information to someone outside the organisation. For example, an outside consultant may write a report of analysis and recommendations. It is usually, written in a personal style and ends with a friendly comment. Though written in paragraphs like an ordinary letter, it carries no salutation and only a signature without any subscription.
This style is used for brief and informal reports.
Two letter style reports are given below:

Wear Well Corporation Ltd.
11, Sansad Marg, New Delhi-110001

December 31, 2011

To,
The Managing Director
Sub.: Declining Sales
Dear Sir,
As desired by you in your letter No ………….. dated …………… I have investigated the decline in the sales of our company during the last year. I wish to report as under:
1. The sales of our readymade shirts have declined from 60,000 shirts in 2008 to 40,000 in 2009.

2. During the last year there has been a spurt of new brands of readymade shirts in the market. Highly reputed companies like Reliance, Grasim, Bombay Dyeing, Raymonds, etc., have introduced readymade shirts. These companies have made a considerable dent into our sales.

3. Our competitors have better marketing distribution network and advertising system.

4. These competitors produce shirts with greater variety of designs and colours.

5. The competition is growing rapidly and one must take immediate remedial steps to prevent further decline in sales.

6. The following steps may be taken to improve our sales :

  • We should introduce new designs in plain, strips and checks.
  • Our packing also needs improvement keeping in view the modern packing systems.
  • We should undertake a regular advertising campaign on radio and television. At present we have no publicity except an occasional advertisement in the local newspaper.
  • We should increase the number of our dealers particularly in the suburbs.

I am quite confident that the above measures will enable us to meet the challenge of growing competition and to improve our sales.

Yours faithfully XYZ
Sales
Manager

National Distributors Ltd.
5, Park Street, Kolkata

1st January, 2012

To,
The Managing Director,
Dear Sir,
Sub.: Installation of Computers
In accordance with your letter No ………. dated ………….. asking me to examine the desirability of installing a computer in our head office. I have thoroughly examined the proposal and would like to report as under:
→ During the last ten years there has been tremendous increase in the amount of clerical work in the correspondence, accounts and records sections of the office.

→ With increase in the number of shareholders the work of the Share Transfer Department has increased.

→ The office is understaffed to do the increased amount of work.

→ In order to handle the increased workload efficiently, accurately and promptly, there is need to instal computers.

→ Installation of a computer will obviate the need for additional staff and also reduce the over¬time bill. In addition the accuracy and speed of clerical work will improve.

→ Office staff should be taken into confidence before placing order for the purchase of a computer.

Yours faithfully
ABC
Secretary

Report Writing – CA Foundation BCR Notes

2. Schematic Style Report:
A schematic report deals with a number of related topics. It is usually requested by a senior executive. In this style the report is presented in a prescribed format under specific headings. It is written according to a specific scheme. Generally, the following headings are used:
→ Terms of Reference : Under this heading, the purpose of the report, the. requesting authority and the scope of enquiry are stated clearly.

→ Action Taken: This heading contains details of the actions taken to collect the data and other material for investigations.

→ Findings : This part contains the details of what was discovered and what information was collected. All the data relevant to the enquiry is presented in a systematic manner.

→ Conclusions : This section comprises the conclusions drawn from the data and other evidence. Conclusions reflect the writer’s opinion and assessment of the situation.

→ Recommendations: Under this heading, the suggestions based on conclusions are given.

Generally a covering letter is sent along with the Schematic report. Two examples of Schematic report are given below :

Beauty Aids Limited
C-5, Connaught Place, New Delhi-110 001
Report on Labour Unrest At Nagda Plant

To: Mr. S.C. Jain, Managing Director
From: The Labour Unrest Investigation Committee
Terms of Reference:
To investigate into the workers’ unrest and make recommendations to restore peace.
Action Taken:
The committee met the manager of the Nagda Plant twice and detailed discussions were held. Subsequently, two meetings were held with the foremen. Ten workers selected at random were interviewed personally. The President and the Secretary of the labour union in the plant were also consulted.

Finding and Conclusions:
(a) The unrest is widespread involving all sections of the factory. The unrest was observed in March 2011 for the first time. In the beginning there were occasional outbursts of ill-temper. Later groups of workers discussed the problems.

In December 2011 a meeting of the plant union was held and a memorandum was submitted to the plant manager. The plant manager sent a report to the General Manager without enclosing the memorandum of the plant union. Most of the foremen felt that unless immediate remedial action was taken, the situation might get out of hand with the possibility of total strike.

(b) Workers made the following complaints:

  • The plant canteen does not provide wholesome refreshments and the prices charged are high
  • There was no suitable bus service from the railway station to the factory
  • The plant manager behaved like a dictator.

Recommendations:

  • The canteen contractor should be asked to improve the quality of refreshments and reduce the rates.
  • A bus service should be introduced between the factory and the railway station, to be run four times daily to coincide with the two shifts.
  • The plant manager should be advised to be more humane in dealing with workers and union leaders.

M.C. Goel
Chairman of the Committee

Modern Bank of India
Zonal Office, Park Street, Kolkata

The Managing Director,                                                                                          May 5, 2011
Head Office
Nariman Point
Mumbai
Dear Sir,
Sub.: Report on our proposed new branch of Modern Bank of India at Midnapore, West Bengal.
In accordance with the resolution passed at the Board meeting held on April 20,2011 instructing us to submit a report on the possibilities of setting up a branch at Midnapore, West Bengal, we have just completed preliminary enquiries and wish to submit the enclosed report.

Yours faithfully,
Prashant Chatterjee
(Convener)
D.K Bose (Member)
Rahul Banerjee (Member)
S.K. Roy (Member)
P. Majumdar (Member)

Encl.: Report
Report of the Committee on our Proposed Branch of the Modern Bank of India at Midnapore, West Bengal.
Terms of Reference
The Committee was appointed in accordance with the following resolutions adopted by the Board of Directors at their meeting on April 20, 2011:

  • That a committee be appointed to consider the possibilities of setting up a new branch at Midnapore, West Bengal.
  • That the committee would consist the following members:

Mr. Prashant Chatterjee, Manager, Howrah Branch, Convener,
Mr. D.K. Bose, Manager, Hooghly Branch, Member,
Mr. Rahul Banerjee, Manager, Burdwan Branch, Member,
Mr. S.K. Roy, Manager, Darjeeling Branch, Member,
Mr. R Majumdar, Manager, Shantiniketan Branch, Member.
Action Taken:
1. The members of the Committee visited Midnapore to study the suitability of this town for setting up a branch there.

2. The members met some leading residents, landlords as well as the Chairman, Subhash Bose, Market Traders’ Association to assess the situation and to find out if some suitable premises could be made available for the proposed branch.

3. The Committee met five times between April 21 and April 28 to discuss the findings and for-mulate concrete suggestions.

Findings and Conclusions:
1. Midnapore, a sleepy town in a remote corner of West Bengal, has suddenly sprung into ac¬tivity with the West Bengal Government’s decision to develop it as an industrial area. The Government has offered attractive incentives to NRIs to invest their money in this industrial area. All infrastructural facilities have been promised at concessional rates.

2. Three major NRI groups-the JKS group of industries, the House of Sarafs and the Jupiter Industries-have already started setting up industrial units in the area. They will be producing computers, electronic goods like television sets and music systems and cycles. Ancillary units are also coming up.

3. With a constant inflow of workers, the population of this town is fast multiplying. A vast com-mercial complex is also under development. The original inhabitants of Midnapore as well as the neighbouring areas, with their newly acquired riches, have suddenly become conscious of their living standards.

4. At present, two nationalised banks have their branches at Midnapore. Both the branches are located in the old market. We don’t think these two branches, with a provision for only skeleton staff, can handle all the business going to be available.

5. We have come across a very suitable site in the shopping complex under development. A building with 300 square metre floor area on ground floor and an 8m x 6m basement is available on rent. Still under construction, it is expected to be ready for possession in another three months.

Recommendations:
The Committee makes the following recommendations:
1. The Management should seize this opportunity and set up a branch at Midnapore. The branch can start functioning with a skeleton staff of one officer, three clerks and two members of the subordinate staff. The branch can then be developed and the strength of the staff reinforced as the need arises.

2. The Management should negotiate with Mr. S.(Goenka, the owner of the building mentioned above. At this stage, it is very easy to build the strong room with the safe deposit vaults and to make other alterations to earmark areas for the counters, the Manager’s cabin and the lounge.

3. Memorandum Reports: There are the most widely reports in business. They are a form of internal communication. Most memorandum reports are communications between people who know each other. Therefore, these are usually written in informal style unless the reader is a high official. Memorandum reports require little introductory information.

May 5, 2011
Kolkata

Prashant Chatterjee (Convener)
D.K. Bose (Member)

Report Writing – CA Foundation BCR Notes

Sample Report on Field Work:

Modern Bank of India
Zonal Office, Park Street
Kolkata

May 5, 2011

The Managing Director,
Head Office
Nariman Point
Mumbai
Dear Sir,
Sub.: Report on our proposed new branch of Modern Bank of India at Midnapore, West Bengal.
In accordance with the resolution passed at the Board meeting held on April 20,2011 instructing us to submit a report on the possibilities of setting up a branch at Midnapore, West Bengal, we have just completed preliminary enquiries and wish to submit the enclosed report.

Yours faithfully,
Prashant Chatterjee
(Convener)
D.K. Bose (Member)
Rahul Banerjee (Member)
S.K. Roy (Member)
P. Majumdar (Member)

Enel.: Report
Report of the Committee on our Proposed Branch of the Modern Bank of India at Midnapore, West Bengal.
Terms of Reference
The Committee was appointed in accordance with the following resolutions adopted by the Board of Directors at their meeting on April 20, 2001 :

  • That a committee be appointed to consider the possibilities of setting up a new branch at Midnapore, West Bengal.
  • That the committee would consist the following members:

Mr. Prashant Chatterjee, Manager, Howrah Branch, Convener,
Mr. D.K. Bose, Manager, Hooghly Branch, Member,
Mr. Rahul Banerjee, Manager, Burdwan Branch, Member,
Mr. S.K. Roy, Manager, Darjeeling Branch, Member/
Mr. P. Majumdar, Manager, Shantiniketan Branch, Member.
Action Taken:
1. The member’s of the Committee visited Midnapore to study the suitability of this town for setting up a branch there.

2. The members met some leading residents, landlords as well as the Chairman, Subhash Bose, Market Traders’ Association to assess the situation and to find out if some suitable premises could be made available for the proposed branch.

3. The Committee met five times between April 21 and April 28 to discuss the findings and for-mulate concrete suggestions.

Findings and Conclusions:
1. Midnapore, a sleepy town in a remote corner of West Bengal, has suddenly sprung into ac¬tivity with the West Bengal Government’s decision to develop it as an industrial area. The Government has offered attractive incentives to NRIs to invest their money in this industrial area. All infrastructural facilities have been promised at concessional rates.

2. Three major NRI groups-the JKS group of industries, the House of Sarafs and the Jupiter Industries-have already started setting up industrial units in the area. They will be producing computers, electronic goods like television sets and music systems, and cycles. Ancillary units are also coming up.

3. With a constant inflow of workers, the population of this town is fast multiplying. A vast com-mercial complex is also under development. The original inhabitants of Midnapore as well as the neighbouring areas, with their newly acquired riches, have suddenly become conscious of their living standards.

4. At present, two nationalised banks have their branches at Midnapore. Both the branches are located in the old market. We don’t think these two branches, with a provision for only skeleton staff, can handle all the business going to be available.

5. We have come across a very suitable site in the shopping complex under development. A building with 300 square metre floor area on ground floor and an 8m x 6m basement is available on rent. Still under construction, it is expected to be ready for possession in another three months.

Recommendations:
The Committee makes the following recommendations :
1. The Management should seize this opportunity and set up a branch at Midnapore. The branch can start functioning with a skeleton staff of one officer, three clerks and two members of the subordinate staff. The branch can then be developed and the strength of the staff reinforced as the need arises.

2. The Management should negotiate with Mr. S. Goenka, the owner of the building mentioned above. At this stage, it is very easy to build the strong room with the safe deposit vaults and to make other alterations to earmark areas for the counters, the Manager’s cabin and the lounge.
May 5,2011
Kolkata

Prashant Chatterjee (Convener)
D.K. Bose (Member)
Rahul Banerjee (Member)
P. Majumdar (Member)

Ends.: The plan of the Midnapore Industrial Area showing the exact situation of the three industries being set up by some NRI groups and the shopping complex under development.

Sample Report On Visit To Industry:

Beauty Aids Limited
C-5, Connaught Place
New Delhi-110 001
Report On Labour Unrest At Nagda Plant

To: Mr. S.C. Jain, Managing Director
From: The Labour Unrest Investigation Committee
Terms of Reference:
To investigate into the workers’ unrest and make recommendations to restore peace.
Action Taken:
The committee met the manager of the Nagda Plant twice and detailed discussions were held. Subsequently, two meetings were held with the foremen. Ten workers selected at random were interviewed personally. The President and the Secretary of the labour union in the plant were also consulted.

Finding and Conclusions:
(a) The unrest is widespread involving all sections of the factory. The unrest was observed in March 2001 for the first time. In the beginning there were occasional outbursts of ill-temper. Later groups of workers discussed the problems.

In December 2001 a meeting of the plant union was held and a memorandum was submitted to the plant manager. The plant manager sent a report to the General Manager without enclosing the memorandum of the plant union. Most of the foremen felt that unless immediate remedial action was taken, the situation might get out of hand with the possibility of total strike.

(b) Workers made the following complaints:

  • The plant canteen does not provide wholesome refreshments and the prices charged are high
  • There was no suitable bus service from the railway station to the factory
  • The plant manager behaved like a dictator.

Recommendations:
(a) The canteen contractor should be asked to improve the quality of refreshments and reduce the rates.

(b) A bus service should be introduced between the factory and the railway station, to be run four times daily to coincide with the two shifts.

(c) The plant manager should be advised to be more humane in dealing with workers and union leaders.

M.C. Goel
Chairman of the Committee
Rahul Banerjee (Member)
P. Majumdar (Member)

Ends.: The plan of the Midnapore Industrial Area showing the exact situation of the three industries being set up by some NRI groups and the shopping complex under development.

Report Writing – CA Foundation BCR Notes

Techniques of Report Writing:
Good report writing involves the following:
1. Adaptation: Adaptation means the use of words that have similar meanings to the report writer and the reader of the report.

2. Objectivity: The report writer must be objective in both thinking and writing style. Keep out all bias, prejudice and emotions. Approach the problem with an open mind. Objective writing is believable.

3. Time View Point: Keep a consistent time viewpoint throughout the report. In other words, the report writer should view all similar information in the report from the same position in time (past or present).

4. Coherence: Various parts of a report must be arranged logically and interrelated. Long reports require words, sentences and paragraphs to connect the parts.

5. Transition: Transition means bridging across by words and sentences. Use transitions where you need to connect parts of the report. Transitions should be natural not mechanical. Transitional sentences are used for connecting large parts. Topic sentences on the other hand improve flow of thoughts. Transitional words show relations between succeeding parts of a report.

6. Interest: Good report writing should be interesting. Choice of words, rhythm and concreteness help to make the report interesting.

Summary:

  • Meaning of Report: A formal statement of what happened, why and what should less be done.
  • Importance of Reports : Provide information insight and guidance for future course of action.
  • Types of Reports: Formal and informal, statutory and non-statutory, routine and special, informational and interpretative.
  • Characteristics of a Good Report : Simplicity, clarity, accuracy, precision, completeness, relevance, cross-reference, objectivity, brevity and reader-oriented.
  • Preparation of Reports : Collect the material, plan the report, draft the report, edit the report.
  • Styles of Reports : Letter style and schematic.

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