Comprehension Passages – BCR CA Foundation Study Material

This Comprehension Passages – BCR CA Foundation Study Material is designed strictly as per the latest syllabus and exam pattern.

Comprehension Passages – BCR CA Foundation Study Material

Question 1.
Read the passage given below and answer the questions following thereafter.

Gandhi does not reject machinery as such. He observes: “How can I be against all machinery when I know that even this body is a most delicate piece of machinery? A spinning wheel is a machine; a little toothpick is a machine. What I object to is the craze for machinery, not machinery, as such. The craze is for what they call labor-saving machinery. Men go on saving labor till thousands are without work and thrown on the open street to die of starvation. I want to save time and labor not for a fraction of making but for all. I want the connection of wealth not in the hands of a few but in the hands of Today machinery merely helps a few to ride on the backs of millions. The impetus behind it all is not the desire to save labor but greed. It is against this system that I am fighting with all my might. The machine should not cut off the limbs of man Factories run by power-driven machinery should be nationalized and controlled by the State. The supreme consideration is man – Mahatma Gandhi.

Questions:
1. Why does Gandhiji accept machinery?
2. What are the evil effects of employers’ craze for machinery?
3. IIow, according to Gandhiji, can the evils of factories run by machines be avoided?
4. How can machinery save time and labor?
5. Explain the following phrases:

  • Not the desire to save but greed
  • With all my might.

6. Write down the sentence wherein Gandhiji says a human being is more important than a machine.
Answers.
1. Gandhiji accepts machinery because even the human body is a delicate machine. He gives the example of the spinning wheel which is a machine.
2. Employers’ urge for machinery causes unemployment and starvation of workers. It also leads to the concentration of wealth in the hands of a few persons who exploit workers.
3. According to Gandhiji the evil effects of factories run by machines can be avoided by nationalization and control of factories by the State.
4. Machinery can save time and labor because machines work faster and require fewer hands.
5.

  • It means the greed of employers to maximize their gain rather than the desire to save the labor of their workers.
  • It means with all my strength.

6. “The machine should not cut off the limbs of man”.

Comprehension Passages – BCR CA Foundation Study Material

Question 2.
Read the passage given below and answer the questions following thereafter.
Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history when we step out from the old to the new when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. It is fitting that at this solemn moment we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity.

At the dawn of history, India started on her unending quest, and trackless centuries are filled with her striving and the grandeur of her success and her failures. Through good and ill fortune alike she has never lost sight of that quest or forgotten the ideals which gave her strength. We end today a period of ill fortune and India discovers herself again. The achievement we celebrate today is but a step, an opening of opportunity, to the greater triumphs and achievements that await. Are we brave enough and wise enough to grasp this opportunity and accept the challenge of the future?

Freedom and power bring responsibility. That responsibility rests upon this Assembly, a sovereign body representing the sovereign people of India. Before the birth of freedom, we have endured all the pains of labor and our hearts are heavy with the memory of this sorrow. Some of those pains continue even now. Nevertheless, the past is over and it is the future that beckons to us now. That future is not one of ease or resting but of incessant striving so that we may fulfill the pledges we have so often taken and the one we shall take today. The service of India means the service of the millions who suffer. It means the ending of poverty and ignorance and disease and inequality of opportunity. The ambition of the greatest man of our generation has been to wipe every tear from every eye. That may be beyond us, but as long as there are tears and suffering, so long our work will not be over.
Questions

  1. In what does the “service of India” consist, according to the author?
  2. What are the ideals which India has never forgotten?
  3. Mention some of the responsibilities of freedom and power.
  4. This speech is concerned with the living as well as the dead. In what way does Nehru appeal to his listeners? What motive urges Nehru to rouse India of today to action?
  5. Quote the line that has a direct reference to Mahatma Gandhi.

Answers

  1. According to Nehruji the ‘service of India’ consists of eradicating poverty, ignorance, and disease.
  2. The Ideals which India has never forgotten is to wipe every tear from every eye.
  3. The responsibilities of freedom and power are to serve millions who suffer.
  4. Nehruji appeals to his listeners by exhorting them with hope and a bright future. The motive of service to mankind urges Nehruji to rouse India of today to action.
  5. “The ambition of the greatest man of our generation has been to wipe every tear from every eye”.

Question 3.
Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below:
A life of action and danger moderates the dread of death. It not only gives us the fortitude to bear the pain but teaches us at every step the precarious tenure on which we hold our present being. Sedentary and studious men are the most apprehensive on this score. Dr. Johnson was an instance in point. A few years seemed to him soon over, compared with those sweeping contemplations on time and infinity with which he had been used to pose himself. In the still life of a man of letters, there was no obvious reason for a change. He might sit in an armchair and pour out cups of tea to all eternity would it had been possible for him to do so. The most rational cure after all for the inordinate fear of death is to set a just value on life. If we merely wish to continue on the scene to indulge our head-strong humor and tormenting passions, we had better be gone at once; and if we only cherish a fondness for existence according to the good we desire from it, the pang we feel at parting it will not be very server.

  1. What type of people are afraid of death and Why?
  2. How can we get rid of the fear of death?
  3. What idea do you form about Dr. Johnson from this passage?
  4. Write a Summary of the Passage. (CA Foundation May 2018)

Answer:
1. Usually people who have a sedentary and inactive lifestyle and are studious or too much into academics are apprehensive of death.

2. We can reduce the fear of death by leading a life full of action and danger since such a lifestyle not only gives us the fortitude to bear pain also teaches us about the uncertainty of our existence. We can also get rid of the fear of death considerably by setting a just value of life.

3. Generally, sedentary and studious men are more afraid of death. Dr. Johnson appears to be a writer or a man pursuing literary interests since he is referred to in the passage as a man of letters. He also leads a ‘still life’ Le. a sedentary life, devoid of action and danger and thus appears to be afraid of death.

4. Summary:
Leading a life full of action and danger moderates the fear of death since such a lifestyle not only builds up the courage to bear the pain but also gives an insight into the uncertainty of our present being. A sedentary lifestyle, full of contemplation, increases the dread of death. Dr. Johnson and his still life as a man of letters was one such instance. One must set a just value on life and cherish one’s existence and moments as they come. This detachment shall reduce the fear of death.

Comprehension Passages – BCR CA Foundation Study Material

Question 4.
Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below :
“Your room is so ugly that no one can enter your room except yourself, son. Please take care of yourself at least. “Harish’s mother was simply shouting at Harish. It was a beautiful Sunday morning and Harish was in no mood to get up from bed even it was already 9.00 A.M. His mother had completed cleaning the whole house except Harish’s Room. Harish got up and finished his daily routine. Still, he was only at the receiving end. “All your friends have finished morning walk, breakfast and completed their weekly homework given in the college. Just clean your room and take the whole garbage and throw it outside.”

Harish was surprised. What is mom speaking about? Yesterday only his mom was teaching him about “Swachh Bharat Abhiyan” and today asking him to throw the garbage outside “What’s this Mom? You advised me so much and today asking to throw garbage outside?” Harish had two options, either to follow his mother’s last night’s advice or to follow her present order. He decided to follow the first and raised objection. His Mom said, “It was just a book son, I was teaching from that only.” Harish still objected and threw the garbage inside a dustbin, located around 200 meters away from his house.

Is it only a matter of reading only? Is really cleanliness not necessary? Is it a duty of the politicians and Government servants? Harish asked all the questions to himself and decided to do what he thought to be proper. If all of us with a little effort try it in our daily life, slowly, but surely we can clean our environment. Only we are responsible for all this nonsense. Therefore we have to act. We have to avoid the use of polythene bags to save our environment; we have to give up our habit of throwing garbage and used plastic bags and bottles here and there. Otherwise, the day will come when we and our future generation will be struggling to find a clean road to walk. Think seriously and act accordingly.

  1. What was the subject matter of the book, which Harish’s mother was teaching him last night?
  2. Who has to act properly to ensure a clean environment?
  3. Who will suffer if we do not ensure a clean environment?
  4. Write a summary of the above paragraph.

Answer:

  1. The subject matter of the book from which Harish’s mother was teaching him was ‘Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.’
  2. It is the duty of all the citizens & inhabitants of the environment to act properly to ensure that the environment is clean.
  3. If we do not ensure a clean environment, all of us as well as our future generations will suffer.
  4. Summary;
    Harish is scolded by his mother for his dirty room, and she asks him to clean his room and throw the whole garbage outside. Harish is surprised at his mother’s instruction whereas she was teaching him about the ‘Swachh Bharat Abhiyan’, the previous night. Harish objects to his mother’s instruction and throws the garbage in a dustbin located at a distance from his house, in a responsible manner. Harish contemplates whether the issue of cleanliness is only limited to reading & not practicing. Every person in the environment is responsible for the cleanliness and not just the Government & politicians. With little effort in our daily lives, we can slowly but surely clean the environment. We must act responsibly; reduce & avoid the use of polythene & plastic; give up the habit of littering or else all of us and our future generations will suffer & struggle for a clean environment.

Comprehension Passages – BCR CA Foundation Study Material

Question 5.
Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below:
Coral reefs are one of the most fragile, biologically complex, and diverse marine ecosystems on Earth. This ecosystem is one of the fascinating paradoxes of the biosphere. Found along the sea coasts they are formed in various shapes and sizes. They constitute one of the beautiful creations of nature. Symbiotic cells of algae known as zooxanthellae carry out photosynthesis using the metabolic wastes of the coral thereby producing food for themselves; for their corals, hosts, and even for other members of the reef community. This symbiotic process allows organisms in the reef community to use sparse nutrient resources efficiently.

Unfortunately for coral reefs, however, a variety of human activities are causing worldwide degradation of shallow marine habitats by adding nutrients to the water. Agriculture, slash-and-burn-1 and clearing, sewage disposal, and manufacturing that create waste by-products all increase nutrient loads in these waters. Typical symptoms of reef decline are destabilized herbivore populations and an increasing abundance of algae and filter-feeding animals.

Declines in reef communities are consistent with observations that nutrient input is increasing in direct proportion to growing human populations thereby threatening reef communities sensitive to subtle changes in nutrient input to their waters.

  1. What are the indicators of reef decay?
  2. How does Algae carry out the process of photosynthesis?
  3. How is the man responsible for the destruction of the Natural Reef?
  4. Write a Summary of the above Passage. (CA Foundation May 2019) Ans.

1. The typical indicators of reef decay are destabilized herbivore populations and an increasing abundance of algae and filter-feeding animals.

2. The algae carry out the photosynthesis process by utilizing the metabolic wastes generated by corals. These algae have a symbiotic relationship with the corals whereby they not only produce food for themselves but also for their corals, hosts, and even for other members of the reef community.

3. Various human activities are largely responsible for the destruction of Natural reefs such as agriculture, slash & burn, Land clearing, sewage disposal & manufacturing activities that generate waste by-products. All these activities increase nutrient loads in marine habitats thereby resulting in imbalance and decay of reef.

4. Summary:
Coral reefs are one of the most delicate complex & diverse marine ecosystems on Earth. The symbiotic relationship between algae, corals, and other organisms of the reef community enables them to co-exist and thrive by efficient utilization of sparse nutrients. The algae utilize the wastes generated by corals and carry out photosynthesis to produce for themselves & corals.

However several human activities like agriculture, sewage disposal, etc. are causing an increase in nutrients load thereby destabilizing the marine ecosystem. This is resulting in a decline in reef communities worldwide.

Passage 1 :
Education, taken in the most extensive sense, is properly that which makes the man. One method of education, therefore, would only produce one kind of men, but the great excellence of human nature consists in the variety of which it is capable. Then instead of endeavoring, by uniform and fixed systems of education, to keep mankind always the same, let us give free scope to everything which may bid fair for introducing more variety amongst us. The various character of the Athenians was certainly preferable to the uniform character of the Spartans or to any uniform national character whatever Uniformity is the characteristic of the brute creation. Among them, every species of bird build their nests with the same materials and in the same forms the genius and disposition of one individual are that of all and it is only education that men give them that raises any of them much above others.

But it is the glory of human nature that the operations of reason, though variable and by no means infallible, are capable of infinite improvement. We come into the world worse provided than any of the brutes but when their faculties are at a full stand and their enjoyments incapable of variety or increase our intellectual powers are growing apace, were/are perpetually deriving happiness from new sources, and even before we leave this world are capable of testing the felicity of angels.

Questions

  1. What is the author’s notion of education?
  2. What is the problem that confronts us?
  3. How were Athenians preferable to Spartans?
  4. How can we constantly derive pleasure from new sources?
  5. Bring out the difference between uniform and fixed systems of education,
  6. What contributes to the capability of infinite improvement?

Passage 2 :
The main justification advanced for capital punishment is that it deters others from committing the same crimes. But statistics show that capital punishment is not a deterrent. Every state that has abolished capital punishment has actually had a decline rather than an increase in capital crimes. And in England, where there has been a long decline in the use of capital punishment, there has been a similar decline in capital crimes. It is a well-known joke that when pickpockets were publicly hanged in England, other pickpockets plied their trade among the crowds watching the hanging. A deterrent indeed! Surely life imprisonment would be at least an equal deterrent.

On the other hand, (capital punishment is an absolute hindrance to rehabilitation and to the correction of a mistake). All modern criminologists recognize that the purpose of punishment is to bring about rehabilitation, but how can you rehabilitate a dead man? Furthermore, it is being more and more realized that most criminals are sick. It certainly seems more reasonable to treat them than to kill them. Additionally, it happens occasionally that an innocent man is put to death. What restitution can there be for such a horrible mistake? A compassionate society should not legalize murder but should carry on programs of rehabilitation.

The Constitution forbids cruel and inhuman punishment. Certainly, sentencing someone to die is inhumane and cruel. Seldom does the condemned know his executing date until it is close at hand? Thus he is in agony about his fate. If he is to be punished, he should be imprisoned only. He should not be condemned to die at a specific date. Capital punishment is a relic of a barbarous age. There has been a continuous decline in its use for centuries. Surely the time has come to abolish it altogether. It may be a one hundred percent deterrent as far as the victim is cornered, but it does no other good, and it does degrade our society.

Questions

  1. What does the author feel about capital punishment as a deterrent?
  2. How according to the author, should a compassionate society deal with criminals?
  3. What does the author want to prove with his joke about pick-pockets? (tv) What are the bad effects of capital punishment?
  4. What are the author’s objections to this kind of punishment?
  5. What has been the justification for capital punishment?
  6. What has been the experience of States abolishing capital punishment?

Comprehension Passages – BCR CA Foundation Study Material

Passage 3 :
Science deals with the positive world, the visible world that we can see and hear and touch. It applies positive methods of experiment and observation. Nehru is convinced that the methods and approaches of science have revolutionized human life more than anything else in the long course of history. Science has opened doors and avenues leading up to the very portals of what has long been considered the unknown. The technical achievements of science have transformed an economy of scarcity into one of abundance. It has made the world progress by leaps and bounds and helped man to build up a glittering civilization. It has added so much to the power of man that since the time he appeared on this earth, he has begun to feel that he can triumph over his physical environment and shape it as he likes it. Indeed man has become a geological force. He is changing the face of this planet chemically, physically, and in many other ways.

But science ignores the ultimate purposes and looks at face alone. Not to speak of the ultimate purposes, science does not understand even the immediate purpose. So when a man has acquired so much power and knowledge to mold the world after his heart’s desire, he does not know how to do it. Though science has made man so powerful in the control of nature, he has no power to control himself. Perhaps new developments in biology, psychology, and similar sciences may help man to understand and control himself more than he has been able to do so far. But it is also possible that before that time arrives the progress of science, unconnected with moral discipline and ethical considerations will lead to the concentration of power in the hands of a few evil and selfish men. In their ambition to dominate others, they will destroy this glittering civilization and the very achievements of the sciences.

It is the critical temper of science that searches for truth and knowledge. It is the courage to refuse to accept anything without test and trial and the capacity to change the previous result in the light of new evidence. It is essential not only for the application of science but for the solution of many problems of life also. There are scientists who apply methods of science in their sphere of work but lack the critical temper of science in their day-to-day life. The scientific temper needs to be the way of life. The ultimate purposes of man may be said to be to gain knowledge, to realize and appreciate goodness and beauty. The methods of science are applicable to these. Therefore to face life, we need and temper and approach of science, allied of course, to philosophy, metaphysics, and all that lies beyond.

Questions

  1. What are the benefits of science?
  2. What is the negative impact of science?
  3. Why does the author recommend the scientific approach despite the fact that it ignores the ultimate purpose of life?

Passage 4 :
Nehru’s decision to opt for the mixed economy has almost universally been misunderstood and has been seen as the result of foreign influence. Fabian socialism and Soviet centralized planning. But Nehru was always searching in every facet of his life and activity for the middle path that Lord Buddha has commended. His policy of non-alignment with its accent on negotiations and mediation was one expression of such a temperament and so also his concept of secularism that did not deny the life of the spirit and all that it implies. His preference for a mixed economy falls in the same category. He genuinely believed that this path would help promote economic growth and social peace at the same time. No one can possibly claim that his total approach- a mixed economy, secularism, democracy and non-alignment-has not been productive of results.

It is a tribute to Nehru’s foresight that, unlike most Third World countries, we are still a functioning democracy and a reasonable human society where the rulers feel obliged at least to profess high standards of public morality. I am emphasizing the essentially Indian origin of the concept of mixed economy in order to make the point that we can deviate from the search for a middle path for long only at the cost of grave violence to ourselves. The forms may differ. But the search for a middle path between capitalism and socialism has to go on. A Latin American type of economy and society is inconceivable in India.

Questions

  1. Why has Nehru’s policy of mixed economy been misunderstood?
  2. Why did Nehru advocate a mixed economy for India?
  3. What does, in the passage, prove that Nehru’s approach was right?
  4. What would happen if the mixed economy were discarded?
  5. What was Nehru searching for in every facet of life?

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