This BCR CA Foundation Study Material BCR CA Foundation Business Correspondence and Reporting Question Paper is designed strictly as per the latest syllabus and exam pattern.
BCR CA Foundation Question Paper | CA Foundation Business Correspondence and Reporting Question Paper
SECTION A – (60 MARKS)
(a) X found a wallet in a restaurant. He enquired of all the customers present there but the true owner could not be found. He handed over the same to the manager of the restaurant to keep till the true owner is found. After a week he went back to the restaurant to enquire about the wallet. The manager refused to return it back to X, saying that it did not belong to him.
In the light of the Indian Contract Act, 1872, comment whether X can recover it from the Manager? (4 Marks)
(b) Mr. Anil formed a One Person Company (OPC) on 16th April, 2018 for manufacturing electric cars. The turnover of the OPC for the financial year ended 31st March 2019 was about Rs. 2.25 Crores. His friend Sunil wanted to invest in his OPC, so they decided to convert it voluntarily into a private limited company. Can Anil do so? (4 Marks)
(c) State the various essential elements involved in the sale of unascertained goods and their appropriation as per the Sale of Goods Act, 1930.
1. (a) According to the provisions of section 71 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872 a finder of lost goods is entrusted with the same responsibilities as a bailee. Under the provisions of Quasi-contract, a finder of lost goods is bound to take as much care of the goods found, as a man of ordinary prudence would under similar circumstances take of his own goods of the same bulk, quality & value. He must also take all reasonable measures to locate its true owner. However, till the owner is found the finder is entitled to retain the goods as his own against the whole world (except the owner). Thus the finder of lost goods is not only in the position of a bailee but is also regarded as the next best owner at law.
In the given case X found a wallet in a restaurant & makes efforts to locate the owner. As a part of the efforts to locate the true owner X entrusts the manager of the restaurant with the wallet. After a week X enquires about the wallet from the manager, but the manager refuses to return the same to X. Thus applying the above-stated provisions it can be concluded that X being a finder of lost foods is in the position of bailee and also entitled to retain the goods so found as against the whole world X can recover the wallet from the manager.
(b) According to the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013, a one-person Company cannot voluntarily convert itself into any kind of company unless 2 years have expired from the date of incorporation except where the paid-up capital is increased beyond ₹ 50,00,000 or its average annual turnover during the relevant period exceeds ₹ 2 crores.
In the given case Mr. Anil incorporated OPC on 16th April 2018. The turnover of the company was ₹ 2.25 crores for the financial year ended 31 st March 2019.
Thus applying the above-stated provisions it can be concluded that the OPC can be validly converted into a private company even though 2 years have not expired from incorporation since the turnover for 1 year itself exceeds ₹ 2 crores.
(c) See answer from Chapter 3 ‘Transfer of ownership’ under unit 2: The Sale of Goods Act, 1930, pg 13.1 – Answer 1.
(a) Define consideration. What are the legal rules regarding consideration under the Indian Contract Act, 1872? * (7 Marks)
(b) Discuss the conditions under which LLP will be liable and not liable for the acts of the partner. (5 Marks)
2. (a) See answer from Chapter 4 ‘consideration ’ under unit 1: The Indian Contract Act, 1872, pg 4.1 – Answer 1.
(b) See answer from Chapter 1 ‘Limited Liability Partnership’ under unit 4: Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008, pg 18.1 Answer 10.
(a) (1) When the continuing guarantee can be revoked under the Indian Partnership Act, 1932? (2 Marks)
(2) What do you mean by Goodwill as per the provisions of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932? (2 Marks)
(b) With reference to the provisions of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932 explain the various effects of insolvency of a partner. (4 Marks)
(c) Mr. Sonumal a wealthy individual provided a loan of Rs. 80,000 to Mr. Datumal on 26.02.2019. The borrower Mr. Datumal asked for a further loan of Rs. 1,50,000. Mr. Sonumal agreed but provided the loan in parts on different dates. He provided Rs. 1,00,000 on 28.02.2019 and remaining Rs. 50,000 on 03.03.2019.
On 10.03.2019 Mr. Datumal while paying off part Rs. 75,000 to Mr. Sonumal insisted that the lender should adjusted Rs. 50,000 towards the loan taken on 03.03.2019 and balance as against the loan on 26.02.2019.
Mr. Sonumal objected to this arrangement and asked the borrower to adjust the order of data of borrower of funds.
Now you decide:
- Whether the contention of Mr. Datumal correct or otherwise as per the provisions of the Indian Contract Act, 1872?
- What would be the answer in case the borrower does not insist on such an order of adjustment of repayment?
- What would the mode of adjustment/appropriation of such part payment be in case neither Mr. Sonumal nor Mr. Datumal insists on any order of adjustment on their part? (6 Marks)
3(a)(1) According to the provisions of section 38 of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, a continuing guarantee given to a partnership firm or to a third party in respect of the transactions of a firm, is in the absence of a contract to the contrary, revoked as to future transactions from the date of any change in the constitution of the firm.
(2) According to the provisions of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, the property of the firm, in the absence of a contract to the contrary includes the goodwill of the business. The term goodwill has not been defined in the Act. The term refers to the advantage which is acquired by a firm from the connection it has built up with its customers and the reputation it has gained. It is the value of reputation which a firm establishes over time due to its efficiency & effectiveness in operations & services and its integrity. This reputation enables the firm to earn more than the normal profits of the industry. It is an intangible asset of the firm & is the whole advantage of the reputation & connection formed with customers together with the circumstances whether of habit or otherwise which tend to make such connection permanent and advantage durable.
(b) See answer from Chapter 2: ‘Relation of Partners ’ under unit 3: The Indian Partnership Act, 1932; pg 16.9, Answer 10.
(a) What are the rights of an unpaid seller against goods under the Sale of Goods Act, 1930? (6 Marks)
(b) Master X was introduced to the benefits of the partnership of M/s. ABC & Co. with the consent of all partners. After attaining majority, more than six months elapsed and he failed to give public notice as to whether he elected to become or not to become a partner in the firm. Later on, Mr. L, a supplier of material to M/s. ABC & Co. filed a suit against M/s. ABC & Co. for recovery of the debt due.
In the light of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, explain:
- To what extent X will be liable if he failed to give public notice after attaining the majority?
- Can Mr. L recover his debt from X? (6 Marks)
4. (a) Rights of unpaid seller against goods: The following are the rights of an unpaid seller against the goods-
(1) Rights of Lien: An unpaid seller has a right to retain the possession of the goods sold, till the price payable in respect of the same is received by him.
The right if lien can be exercised by the unpaid seller where the goods have not been sold on credit or where the goods have been sold on credit, but the term of credit has expired or when the buyer becomes insolvent. The right of lien can be exercised by the unpaid seller only for the recovery of price [and not any other charges], provided the goods are in possession of the seller. Thus if the seller loses possession of goods then right of lien shall be lost.
(2) Right of stoppage in Transit: The right of stoppage in transit can be exercised by the unpaid seller provided the following conditions are satisfied.
- the buyer has become insolvent &
- the goods are in transit.
The right can be exercised only for the recovery of price. Under this right the unpaid seller is entitled to stop goods in transit after he has parted with the possession of the goods but before the goods come under the possession of the buyer/buyer’s agent. This right can be exercised in respect of goods in transit & in the event of buyer’s insolvency only. The right comes to an end with the termination of transit. The goods are deemed to be in course of transit from the time they are delivered to a carrier or other bailee in an independent capacity for the purpose of transmission to the buyer until the buyer or his agent takes delivery of them from such carrier or another bailee.
(3) Right of resale: The unpaid seller can effect a re-sale of goods where—
- the goods are of perishable nature or
- he gives notice to the buyer of his intention to re-sell the goods and the buyer does not pay or tender the price within a reasonable time.
(b) According to the provisions of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932, a minor can be admitted to the benefits of partnership with the consent of all the partners. However, on the attainment of majority, such a minor must give public notice of his intention to become or not to become a partner in the firm. Such a public notice must be given by the minor within 6 months of his attaining majority or of his obtaining the knowledge that he had been admitted to the benefits of the firm, whichever date is later.
Further, if he fails to give public notice within the prescribed time he shall be deemed to be a partner in the firm on the expiry of the said 6 months. In such a case the minor on being deemed as a partner shall become personally liable to the third parties for all the future acts of the firm as well as for all the part acts of the firm done since he was admitted to the benefits of a partnership. He shall be entitled to all the rights of a partner & subjected to all the duties of a partner and his share in the property and profits shall remain similar to what he was entitled to as a minor
In the given case X, a minor is admitted to the benefits of M/s. ABC & Corpn. fails to give public notice within 6 months of his attaining majority. Later Mr. L, a supplier sues the firm for the recovery of a debt.
Thus applying the above-stated provisions it can be concluded that:
(1) X shall be deemed to have become a partner in the firm. As a consequence X can be held personally liable along with their other partners and his liability shall be unlimited. X shall be liable for all the future acts of the firm as well as those past acts done by the firm since his admission into benefits of the firm.
(2) Mr. L can recover his debt from X provided the debt was incurred after he was admitted to the benefits of a partnership.
(a) Mrs. Geeta went to the local rice and wheat wholesale shop and asked for 100 kgs of Basmati rice. The Shopkeeper quoted the price of the same as Rs. 125 per kg to which she agreed. Mrs. Geeta insisted that she would like to see the sample of what will be provided to her by the shopkeeper before she agreed upon such a purchase.
The shopkeeper showed her a bowl of rice as a sample. The sample exactly corresponded to the entire lot.
The buyer examined the sample casually without noticing the fact that even though the sample was that of Basmati Rice but it contained a mix of long and short grains. The cook on opening the bags complained that the dish is prepared with the rice would not taste the same as the quality of rice was not as per the requirement of the dish.
Now Mrs. Geeta wants to file a suit of fraud against the seller alleging him of selling a mix of good and cheap quality rice. Will she be successful?
Explain the basic law on sale by sample under the Sale of Goods Act, 1930?
Decide the fate of the case and options open to the buyer for grievance redressal as per the provisions of the Sale of Goods Act, 1930?
What would be your answer in case Mrs. Geeta specified her exact requirement as to the length of rice? (6 Marks)
(b) “The Memorandum of Association is a charter of a company”. Discuss. Also, explain in brief the contents of the Memorandum of Association.
5(a) According to the provisions of the Sale of Goods Act, 1930, in case of a contract is for sale by sample the implied condition is that:
- the bulk of the goods supplied shall correspond with the sample.
- that the buyer shall have a reasonable opportunity of comparing the bulk with the sample and
- the goods shall be free from any latent defects.
Further, if the goods are sold by sample as well as description then as per the implied condition, it is the duty of the seller to ensure that the goods supplied correspond with both the sample as well as description.
However, it is the duty of the buyer to nevertheless examine the goods before purchasing them. If the buyer, due to his negligence or oversight, makes a bad selection he cannot subsequently hold the seller liable (Rule of Caveat Emptor)
In the given case, the shopkeeper has contracted for the sale of 100 kgs of Basmati rice to Mrs. Geeta. The sale is affected by a sample and Mrs. Geeta is given a reasonable opportunity to compare the sample with bulk. The sample corresponds to the entire lot. However, Mrs. Geeta fails to notice that the sample itself contained mixed varieties of rice and as a consequence was aggrieved by delivery of a mixed variety of bulk which corresponded with the rice sampled by her.
Thus applying the above state provisions to the given case it can be concluded that Mrs. Geeta would not be successful in her suit against the shopkeeper, since he had duly complied with his duties under the implied condition of sale by sample. Mrs. Geeta shall be responsible for her own loss on the grounds of ‘Caveat Emptor since she was negligent in identifying the defects in the sample, which were visible.
If Mrs. Geeta specified her exact requirement as to the length of rice grains the sale shall be treated as a sale by sample & description. In such a case the goods should correspond with both the sample & description. In the event of non-correspondence with anyone, the seller shall be held liable for breach of a condition which in turn would entitle Mrs. Geeta for repudiation of contract and suit for damages against the shopkeeper.
(b) The Memorandum of Association of a company is regarded as its foundation which expresses the purpose of incorporation of the company and also spells out the conditions within the purview of which it is permitted to be formed & run its operations. The MOA not only defines the powers of the company proposed to be formed but in doing so also delimits/confines its powers. A company can enter only into those transactions & operations which are expressly permissible in the object clause of MOA or which are considered as ancillary or facilitative to the accomplishment of the expressly stated objects. Any transaction which falls beyond the scope of powers confessed by the MOA shall be regarded as ultra vires and therefore void ab initio.
The MOA can be truly regarded as the constitution or charter of the company since it defines the scope of powers conferred on an artificial legal person ie. a company. The MOA not only provides clarity to the shareholders with respect to the purposes for which their contributed capital shall be utilized by the company but also provides the outsiders & dealing with the company, the certainty as to the nature & scope of their contractual relationships.
The following are the contents of MOA:
1. Name clause – It states the name of the company. The name of a public company must have ‘Limited’ as its last word, whereas the name of a private company must end with the word – ‘Private Limited’.
2. Registered office clause – This clause must specify the name of the state in which the R.O of the company is proposed to be situated. The complete address of the company need not be mentioned in the MOA.
3. Object clause – The MOA of a company must state with clarity the purpose or the objects for which a company is proposed to be incorporated. It may also state such other objects which are necessary for the accomplishment of main objects.
4. Liability clause – This clause expressly states the extent of liability of the members of the company. The liability of members shall be limited to the unpaid value of the share capital held by them, in the case of a company limited by shares. Whereas in the case of a company limited by guarantee the liability of the members shall be limited up to the amount guaranteed by them to be contributed in the event of winding up of the company.
5. Capital clause – This clause in MOA of a company having share capital states the amount of share capital with which a company is proposed to be incorporated. The clause also states the number and type of shares in which the capital is divided into as well as the fixed amount or value of each share.
The number of shares that each subscriber to the MOA undertakes to subscribe must be indicated opposite his name, [at least 1 share]
(a) Explain the term ‘Coercion’ and what are the effects of coercion under Indian Contract Act, 1872. (5 Marks)
(b) “Dissolution of a firm is different from dissolution of Partnership”. Discuss. (4 Marks)
(c) A, an assessee had large income in the form of dividend and interest. In order to reduce his tax liability, he formed four private limited company and transferred his investments to them in exchange of their shares. The income earned by the companies was taken back by him as pretended loan. Can A be regarded as separate from the private limited company he formed? (3 Marks)
6 (a) See answer from chapters ‘Free consent’ under Unit 1: ‘The Indian Contract Act, 1872’, Pg 5.3, Q4.
(b) Dissolution of firm implies the dissolution of the partnership, such that not only the relationship between all the partners comes to an end but the business of the firm is also discontinued. In the event of dissolution of the firm, the business ceases to continue and the assets of the firm are realized with a view to settling the liabilities of the firm and surplus if any is distributed among the partners as per their respective interests. The realization account is prepared on the dissolution of the firm for settlement of liabilities & assets.
On the other hand dissolution of partnership, merely refers to the change in the relationship of partners without resulting in discontinuance of the business of the firm. The relationship are reconstituted and the firm conducts its operations with the existing/remaining partners. The dissolution of partnership may take place in the event of admission of a new partner, retirement or death of a partner, change in profit sharing ratio etc.
Thus dissolution of a firm is a wider term which not only results in dissolution of partnership relation but also in discontinuance of business of the firm.
(c) Hint : Lifting of corporate veil for protection revenue; see Chapter 1 ‘The Companies Act, 2013’ Under Unit 5;Pg 19.13, Q15. (Similar type of question.)
SECTION B – (40 MARKS)
BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE & REPORTING
(a) Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below :
Being the daughter of a physics professor, Marie who was born in 1867 in Warsaw, Poland, was greatly influenced by the wonders of Science and tech-nology. Since an early age, she displayed a blithe personality. Her fascination for learning prompted her to continue with her studies even after school. She become disgruntled, however, when she learned that the university in Warsaw was closed for women. Determined to complete higher education, she defiantly left Poland and in 1891 entered the Sorbonne, a French university, where she completed her doctorate in physics.
Marie met Pierre Curie at the Sorbonne along with some of the other greatest scientists of her day. Marie and Pierre were married in 1895 and spent many productive years working together in the physics laboratory. A short time after they discovered radium, Pierre was killed by a horse-drawn wagon in 1906. For Marie it was an horrible misfortune and heartbreaking event. Despondently she recalled their close relationship and the joy that they had shared in scientific research. The fact that she had two young daughters to raise by herself greatly increased her distress.
Curie’s feeling of desolation finally began to fade when she was asked to suc-ceed her husband as a physics professor at the Sorbonne. She was the first woman to be given a professorship at the world-famous university. In 1911 she received the Nobel Prize in physics for isolating radium. Although Marie Curie eventually suffered a fatal illness from her long exposure to radium, she never became disillusioned about her work. Regardless of the consequences, she had dedicated herself to science and to revealing the mysteries of the physical world.
- What did Marie did not like about the Warsaw University? (1 Mark)
- What was first step that Marie took towards her becoming a scientist? (1 Mark)
- How did Marie deal with the desolation caused by her husband’s death? (1 Mark)
- Write a Summary of the above Passage. (2 Marks)
(b) Read the Passage :
- Make Notes, using Headings, Sub-headings and abbreviations whenever necessary. (3 Marks)
- Write summary (2 Marks)
People do not always do the things we want them to do. No matter how rea-sonable or minimal our expectations may be, there are times when we are let down. Naturally, we feel upset and hurt when our expectations are not met. We dread confrontations because they are unpleasant and can damage relationships.
Yet not confronting a person does not solve the problem because unresolved issues also affect relationships in an adverse way. Actually, the real problem lies in our style of confrontation, not in the issue.
Typically, we use character-based confrontations. They help in venting our an-ger and hurt, but that is the only thing they do. They lead to angry showdowns and bring all discussions to a grinding halt. It is important to remember that self-image is the most important possession of all human beings.
It is the way we view and regard ourselves in our own eyes and in the eyes of others. As self-conscious beings, we are actually aware of our image and constantly work towards protecting it from any damage.
We also seek approval from others about our own self-image. We feel distraught if we sense that there is even a slight threat to our self image, because our character is the essence of our lives. To ensure a rational dialogue over dashed expectations, we need to deploy issued based confrontations. They involve an explanation of which actions have bothered us, in what manner and what changes we would like from the other person.
- Marie was dissatisfied with the fact that the university in Warsaw was closed for women.
- First step taken by Marie towards her becoming a scientist was leaving Poland & entering Sorbonne, a French University, in 1891, where she completed her doctorate in Physics.
- Marie succeeded her husband as a physics professor at Sorbonne, which helped her in dealing with the desolation caused by his death.
Marie was born in 1867 in Warsaw, Poland. Being the daughter of a Physics professor she was greatly influenced by the wonders of science & technology. Keen on studying she left Poland and joined Sorbonne, a French university, where she completed her doctorate in Physics.
Marie got married to Pierre Curie, one of the greatest scientist at Sorbonne. Together they discovered radium, a short-time after which Pierre was killed by a horse-drawn wagon. Marie could recover from this misfortune and heart breaking event when she was asked to succeed her husband as a Physics pro-fessor at the Sorbonne. She became the first woman to be given professorship at the world famous university. She later received the Nobel Prize in 1911 for isolating radium. Although her prolonged exposure to radium resulted in fatal illness, she had dedicated herself to science in a selfless manner.
(1) Note – Making:
- Ppl. do not always meet our expects.
- Hurt when expctns. not met.
- fear of confrtns. since they are unpleasant and damaging for reltnshp.
- confrtns. not effective v of style of confrtns.
- typcly. character based confrtns.
- results in angry show down & hurt
- self-image is imp. poss. of human beings
- we try to constantly protect it from damage
- we seek apprvl. from others.
- makes us distraught if self image is attacked
(D) Resolution of issues
- unresolved issues affect reltnshp.
- rational dialogue essential
- deploy issue-based confrtns.
- explntns. of issues & manner in which they have bothrd. us & changes desired by us on part of others
- Ppl. = people
- expctns. = expectations
- confrtns. = confrontations
- typcly. = typically
- imp. = important
- poss. = possession
- apprvl. = approval
- reltnshp. = relationship
- expints. = explanations
- v = because
- bothrd. = bothered
(b) (2) Summary
People do not always meet our expectations and as a consequence we feel let down & hurt. We are afraid of confrontations since they usually turn out to be unpleasant. However avoiding confrontation results in unresolved issues, which is also damaging to relationships. The real problem lies in our style of confrontation which is usually character – based. Since self-image is important for every person, we make efforts to preserve it and we constantly need approval of other people. To resolve issues effectively we need to engage in issue – based confrontations, whereby we explain the issues objectively as well as the changes on part of the others which are desired by us.
(a) Discuss the process of communication. (2 Marks)
(b) 1. Choose the word which best expresses the meaning of the given word : (1 Mark)
2. Select a suitable antonym for the word given under: (1 Mark)
3. Change the following sentence to indirect speech:
Reena said, “Nobody can solve the problem on the earth”. (1 Mark)
(c) Write a Precis and give appropriate title to the passage given below:
DNA degrades quickly after an animal dies, so researchers once believed it impossible to find ancient genetic material. The search for primeval vestiges of DNA took off in the late 1980s after the development of a technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which copies minute quantities of DNA. Armed with PCR, scientists could look for tiny fragments of DNA that might have weathered the millennia unharmed.
In recent years, researchers have isolated DNA from 20-million-year-old mag-nolia leaves and extracted DNA from a 135-million-year-old weevil found in amber. Recently, a team extracts DNA from bone dating back millions of years for the first time. In the frenzied hunt for ancient DNA, microbiologist Scott R. Woodward may have bagged the biggest quarry. Drawing on lessons learned while growing up among the fossil-rich rocks of eastern Utah, Woodward and his team became the first people to find genetic material belonging to a dinosaur.
Woodward, whose grandfather was a coal miner, knew that mines in the area often contained dinosaur traces. After six months of looking Woodward pulled two bone fragments from a Cretaceous siltstone layer directly a top a coal seam. Impeded by an unstable mine roof, Woodward’s team could not recover any more bone samples. The siltstone apparently inhibited fossilization and preserved much of the original cell structure in the bone. Researchers isolated strands of DNA from both fragments and used PCR to copy a segment that codes for a protein called cytochrome. Once they had made many copies, they could determine the DNA sequence.
Throughout their work, the biologists took precautions to avoid contaminating the samples with modern DNA or ancient material found within the coal. According to Woodward, circumstantial evidence indicates that the bone fragments belong to one or two species of dinosaurs. Dinosaur tracks are abundant in this coal formation, and the bones visible in the mine were larger than those of a crocodile – the biggest non-dinosaur known in these rocks. (5 Marks)
8(a) See answer from Chapter 1 ‘Communication ’ pg 20.5, Q1 – process of communication
- Reena said that nobody could solve the problem on the earth
DNA – The code of life
Earlier the researchers believed the discovery of primeval vestiges of DNA to be impossible since DNA degrades quickly after the death of any living organism. However the discovery of PCR technique has provided the researchers the much needed tool to isolate DNA present even in minute quantities in fossilized plants & animals. Microbiologist scott R. Woodward and his team became the first people to find genetic material belonging to a dinosaur. Woodward & his team discovered 2 bone fragments which had much of the cell structure intact. Using PCR technique the researchers isolated DNA and determined its sequence. The entire process was executed with precautions and as per circumstantial evidence. Woodward is of the opinion that the bone fragment belong to one/two species of dinosaur.
(a) 1. Discuss the term “Visual Communication” in communication. (2 Marks)
2. What do you mean by an “Attitude Barrier”? (2 Marks)
(b) 1. Choose the word which best expresses the meaning of the given word: (1 Mark)
2. Choose the word which best expresses the meaning of the given word: (1 Mark)
- Not fast
- Not Finding
- Not Embarrassed
- Not Angry
3. Change the following sentence to indirect speech: (1 Mark)
He said, “Will you all come for the meeting?”
(c) Draft Newspaper Report on “Flood situation grim in southern, western states” to be published in a National newspaper. (5 Marks)
9(a)1. Visual communication – Visual communication refers to the communication of thoughts, information & ideas expressed as message through the use of visual aids. Thus visual communication deploys visual aids like signs drawings, pictures, graphical designs, color, illustrations, symbols etc. and engages the sense of vision of the recipient to communicate the message effectively.
It is an established fact that visual communication is more powerful and impressionable rather than the communication through mere text/words. Visuals such as graphs, pie-charts, flow diagrams, images etc. communicate considerable information in a clear and concise manner.
2. Attitude Barrier – It is one of the barriers to communication which significantly affects the effectiveness of the process of communication. Since attitude is the way one thinks or feels, it has a substantial bearing now how the person sends the message or understands the received message. The attitude of a persons determines his frame of mind and thus can either contribute to or hinder the communication process. A proactive and motivated employee shall be able to engage in open communication whereas a lazy, shy or dissatisfied employee is generally closed to frank communication or is hesitant in participating in communication process.
- Not embarrassed
- He asked them whether they would come for the meeting
(c) Newspaper Report on floods:-
Flood situation grim in Southern and Western States
10th August, 2019/HT staff correspondent/New Delhi
The most parts of the Southern and Western States of the country have been deluged with the floods caused due to incessant rains from the month of July to early August 2019. The South-West and North-East monsoons have wreaked havoc in the country leaving behind stories of devastation. The States of Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Gujarat have been the worst hit. As per the official records, up to now more than 200 people have died and millions have been rendered homeless by the cruel hand of nature, across the country. Thousands of families have been affected and millions have been evacuated and shifted to relief camps. “I have lost everything, my house, my cattle, my crop. I even got separated from my family during the evacuation operation. I do not know whether they made it or not. I have no reason to live”, cries Jayesh Babu in a relief camp in Belagavi, Karnataka. The stories of devastation are same everywhere. The Western States of Gujarat and Maharashtra have been equally ravaged by the torrential rains. As per the CM of Maharashtra these have been the worst floods witnessed by the state in the past 25 years.
Once the flood waters recede, the fear of the outbreak of diseases and epidemic is also giving sleepless nights to the administration. “We will be able to evaluate the actual crisis once the waters recede. Death toll is expected to rise and post disaster many fatalities due to outbreak of diseases also take place. We are trying our best to contain the fallout but the situation is certainly grim”, as per the DMO (health) in a district in Kerala. The administration of all the states is scrambling to carry out its relief work since the railway and air service have also been badly hit and many areas have become inaccessible due to incessant rains.
Relief operations are in full swing in all the flood hit states and NDRF and SDRF personnel have been deployed to carry out the rescue work. They are however finding it difficult to carry out their relief operations in the severity of weather conditions. The Navy and the Coast Guard are carrying on joint operations along with the NDRF and SDRF personnel. Many NGOs, both na-tional and international, are toiling to provide relief to the flood stricken states. Help in form of money, food items, drinking water, medicines, clothes, first aid materials etc., is pouring in from all parts of the country. One such organisation is the Khalsa Aid organisation – an international organisation actively engaged in providing aid in disaster struck regions. “People not only need help in form of money and materials but more importantly they need hope and compassion in such compelling times”, says Devendra Singh, a volunteer from Khalsa Aid. The floods have not only snuffed out hundreds of innocent lives but have also snatched the livelihoods of scores of the population across these states and have left them staring at a daunting future ahead.
It shall take near about months to ensure rehabilitation of the displaced millions and for them to pick up the pieces of their lives and start afresh. Such natural calamities not only make us jolt out of our indifference but also compel us to rethink about the manner in which we are dealing with the environment and planning our cities and settlements.
(a) Explain how emotional awareness and control helps in communication? (2 marks)
(b) (1) Change the sentence from Active to Passive Voice. (1 Mark)
The audience loudly cheered the Prime Minister’s speech.
(2) Change the sentence from Passive to Active Voice. (1 Mark)
The Bird was killed by a cruel boy.
(3) Change the following sentence to indirect speech. (1 Mark)
He said, “My Mother is writing letters”.
(c) Write an article of about 250 words on the topic, “The importance of water conservation”. (5 Marks)
10(a) Emotions & feelings of a person can not only cloud his judgment in understanding the transmitted communication but may also color his judgment while he is encoding the information into a message for the purpose of transmission. This results in loss of objectivity on the part of the person engaged in the communication process either as the sender or receiving, thereby rendering the entire process ineffective.
To ensure that whatever is intended, is transmitted & interpreted objectively the persons involved in the process of communication must exercise control over their emotions. This is possible when a person is emotionally aware i.e. he is able to understand and recognize one’s own as well as others’ emotions. Equipped with this knowledge & awareness he is able to exercise control over his emotions in a better manner and respond in a rational & constructive manner. For example, if a person is angry while communicating and he is neither aware of the same nor in control, then he may misconstrue the message and respond inappropriately or may send a message using such tone or words which may adversely impact the relationships at the workplace.
Thus emotional awareness and control is an important factor in effective communication
- The Prime Minister’s speech was loudly cheered by the audience.
- A cruel boy killed the bird.
- He said that his mother was writing letters.
- Article on ‘The importance of water conservation:-
The world is currently on the brink of an acute water crisis with at least 25% of the world population facing water stress of a severe nature. As per a World Economic Forum report on global risks, the water crisis ranks as the 4th most grave risk faced by the world population. India ranks at 13th position globally, facing water stress of an ‘extremely high’ grade, as per the World Resource Institute. What is more appalling is the fact that the severity of the water crisis faced by the population is in proportion to its economic status. Thus there are not only inequalities of wealth and income but the same inequalities are also reflected in the right to access to a crucial life-sustaining resource like water.
Currently, 97% of the water resources on the planet are saline and therefore unfit for human consumption or for utilization for commercial activities. The situation is only worsening with time on account of unscrupulous deforestation, pollution, unchecked emission of greenhouse gases, unplanned urbanization & global warming. There is insufficient water supply to meet the basic human need for water, for consumption, commercial and agricultural purposes.
The underground water table is declining globally and the situation is equally alarming in India. The irony is that despite the increase in precipitation as observed in the last few years in the country, the availability of drinking water is decreasing alarmingly. The dread of the much talked about ‘DAY ZERO’, when the cities run out of drinking water, is no longer a concern of a remote future but very much a part of our harsh reality. The entire country stands at the edge of the precipice of a water emergency, where major metropolitan cities of the country including the national capital face acute water shortages.
It is the global need of the hour to make efforts for the conservation of water resources to ensure the sustainability of life. Rainwater harvesting can be resorted to, for conserving and storing rainwater. This will in turn result in recharging the underground water table and prevent soil erosion as well as flooding. If planned measures for rainwater harvesting are adopted, the rainwater will not wastefully flow into the rivers and drains but shall rather be capable of being used to meet the growing water needs of the community. By setting up stringent and effective laws, unplanned and irresponsible construction activities can be discouraged, rainwater harvesting can be made mandatory and penalties can be imposed on wastage of water resources.
Further by using advanced and more scientific methods of farming like hydroponics, aquaponics, and using techniques like drip irrigation, crop rotation etc., economic utilization of water resources can be ensured without adversely affecting the agricultural operations. Sensitization towards the impending crisis on account of global water stress must be ensured by running adequate awareness programs by the administration, so as to encourage the individuals to contribute to the conservation of water.
Efforts must be made by every individual, at the household level as well as their workplaces, wherever they find an opportunity to contribute to the conservation of water as W.H. Auden has rightly said, “Thousands have lived without love but not one without water.”
(a) Define the areas where a chain network of communication is found in an organization. (2 Marks)
(b) Select the correct meaning of Idioms/Phrases given below:
(1) Takes Two to Tango (1 Mark)
- Two people are required for dancing
- Two people are required for creating mischief.
- Two people are required to clean the floor.
- Two people are required to help others.
(2) Storm in a teacup (1 Mark)
- Crave for something
- Least importance
- Emergency situation
- Make a big issue out of a small thing.
(3) Change the sentence into Active Voice: (1 Mark)
They will be given a ticket for overspeeding by the police inspector.
(4) Choose the word which best expresses the meaning of the given word. (1 Mark)
- To Fetch
(c) Write a letter to a bank requesting them to stop payment of a cheque which has been reported lost. (4 Marks)
11 (a) See answer on Pg. 20.6, point No. 3 – ‘Chain Network’ in Chapter 1 – ‘Communication’.
- Two people are required for creating mischief.
- Make a big issue out of a small thing
- The police inspector will give a ticket to them for overspeeding
(c) Letter to a bank for stop payment of a lost cheque
The Branch Manager,
Axis Bank, Main Branch
Kanpur – 208001.
Subject – ‘Request for stop payment of cheque bearing no. – 000412596’
This is to bring to your kind notice that a cheque bearing No. 000412596, dated 12th November 2019, drawing on our Company’s A/c No. 02730411169802, in your branch was issued in favor of our client Mr. X, for a sum of ₹ 5,00,000. However, the cheque has been reported by our client to have been misplaced.
I, hereby request you on behalf of my company to urgently stop payment in respect of the above-stated cheque. Kindly do the needful and inform accordingly.
Mr. Akshay Bhatia
Wow Products Pvt. Ltd.
(Dt. 15th Nov. 2019)